Dopamine receptor D2
Dopamine receptor D2, also known as D2R, is a protein that, in humans, is encoded by the DRD2 gene. After work from Paul Greengard's lab had suggested that dopamine receptors were the site of action of antipsychotic drugs, several groups (including those of Solomon Snyder and Philip Seeman) used a radiolabeled antipsychotic drug to identify what is now known as the dopamine D2 receptor. The dopamine D2 receptor is the main receptor for most antipsychotic drugs. The structure of DRD2 in complex with the atypical antipsychotic risperidone has been determined.
In mice, regulation of D2R surface expression by the neuronal calcium sensor-1 (NCS-1) in the dentate gyrus is involved in exploration, synaptic plasticity and memory formation. A recent study has shown a potential role for D2R in retrieval of fear memories in the prelimbic cortex.
The long form (D2Lh) has the "canonical" sequence and functions as a classic post-synaptic receptor. The short form (D2Sh) is pre-synaptic and functions as an autoreceptor that regulates the levels of dopamine in the synaptic cleft. Agonism of D2sh receptors inhibits dopamine release; antagonism increases dopaminergic release. A third D2(Longer) form differs from the canonical sequence where 270V is replaced by VVQ.
Active (D2HighR) and inactive (D2LowR) forms
The monomeric inactive conformer of D2R in binding with Risperidone was reported in 2018 (PDB ID: 6CM4). However, the active form which is generally bound to an agonist, is not available yet and in most of the studies the Homology modeling of the structure is implemented. The difference between the active and inactive of G protein-coupled receptor is mainly observed as conformational changes at the cytoplasmic half of the structure, particularly at the transmembrane domains (TM) 5 and 6. The conformational transitions occurred at the cytoplasmic ends are due to the coupling of G protein to the cytoplasmic loop between the TM 5 and 6.
It was observed that either D2R agonist or antagonist ligands revealed better binding affinities inside the ligand-binding domain of the active D2R in comparison with the inactive state. It demonstrated that ligand-binding domain of D2R is affected by the conformational changes occurring at the cytoplasmic domains of the TM 5 and 6. In consequence, the D2R activation reflects a positive cooperation on the ligand-binding domain.
In drug discovery studies in order to calculate the binding affinities of the D2R ligands inside the binding domain, it's important to work on which form of D2R. It's known that the full active and inactive states are recommended to be used for the agonist and antagonist studies, respectively.
Any disordering in equilibration of D2R states, which causes problems in signal transferring between the nervous systems, may lead to diverse serious disorders, such as Schizophrenia, autism and Parkinson's disease. In order to control these disorders, equilibration between the D2R states is controlled by implementing of agonist and antagonist D2R ligands. In most cases, it was observed that the problems regarding the D2R states may have genetic roots and are controlled by drug therapies. So far, there is no any certain treatment for these mental disorders.
Oligomerization of D2R
It was observed that D2R exists in dimeric forms or higher order oligomers. There are some experimental and molecular modeling evidences that demonstrated the D2R monomers cross link from their TM 4 and TM 5 to form dimeric conformers. Oligomerization of D2R has a main role in their biological activities and any disordering in it may lead to mental diseases. It's known that the D2R ligands (either the agonist or antagonist) binding to the ligand-binding domain of D2R are independent of oligomerization and can not have any effect on its process, so the drugs used for the treatment of mental diseases can't cause any main problem in oligomerization of D2R. Since the process of oligomerization of D2R in human bodies and their links to the mental diseases were not explicitly studied, there is no any treatment reported for the disorders originates from oligomerization's problems.
The oligomerization of GPCRs is a controversial topic that there are many unknown problems on this area yet. There's not any crystallographic data available describing the crosslinking of monomers. There are some evidences suggesting that GPCRs monomers crosslinking domains are different and dependent to the biological environments and other factors.
- C132T, G423A, T765C, C939T, C957T, and G1101A
- -141C insertion/deletion The polymorphisms have been investigated with respect to association with schizophrenia.
Some researchers have previously associated the polymorphism Taq 1A (rs1800497) to the DRD2 gene. However, the polymorphism resides in exon 8 of the ANKK1 gene. DRD2 TaqIA polymorphism has been reported to be associated with an increased risk for developing motor fluctuations but not hallucinations in Parkinson's disease.
Most of the older antipsychotic drugs such as chlorpromazine and haloperidol are antagonists for the dopamine D2 receptor, but are, in general, very unselective, at best selective only for the "D2-like family" receptors and so binding to D2, D3 and D4, and often also to many other receptors such as those for serotonin and histamine, resulting in a range of side-effects and making them poor agents for scientific research. In similar manner, older dopamine agonists used for Parkinson's disease such as bromocriptine and cabergoline are poorly selective for one dopamine receptor over another, and, although most of these agents do act as D2 agonists, they affect other subtypes as well. Several selective D2 ligands are, however, now available, and this number is likely to increase as further research progresses.
- Bromocriptine – full agonist
- Cabergoline (Dostinex)
- N,N-Propyldihydrexidine – analogue of the D1/D5 agonist dihydrexidine; Selective for postsynaptic D2 receptor over the presynaptic D2 autoreceptor.
- Piribedil – also D3 receptor agonist and α2–adrenergic antagonist
- Pramipexole – also D3, D4 receptor agonist
- Quinelorane – affinity for D2 > D3
- Quinpirole – also D3 receptor agonist
- Ropinirole – full agonist
- Sumanirole – full agonist; highly selective
- Talipexole – selective for D2 over other dopamine receptors, but also acts as α2–adrenoceptor agonist and 5-HT3 antagonist.
- Armodafinil – although primarily thought to be a weak DAT inhibitor, armodafinil is also a D2 partial agonist.
- GSK-789,472 – Also D3 antagonist, with good selectivity over other receptors 
- Ketamine (also NMDA antagonist)
- 2-Phenethylamine – (also a TAAR1 agonist and GABAb antagonist with effects at AMPA receptors)
- LSD – in vitro, LSD was found to be a partial agonist and potentiates dopamine-mediated prolactin secretion in lactotrophs. LSD is also a 5-HT2A agonist.
- OSU-6162 – also 5-HT2A partial agonist, acts as "dopamine stabilizer"
- Roxindole (only at the D2 autoreceptors)
- Salvinorin A – also κ-opioid agonist.
- Atypical antipsychotics (except aripiprazole, brexpiprazole, and any other D2 receptor partial agonists)
- Domperidone – D2 and D3 antagonist; does not cross the blood-brain barrier
- Metoclopramide - Antiemetic - crosses Blood-brain Barrier - causes drug induced Parkinsonism.
- Hydroxyzine (Vistaril, Atarax)
- L-741,626 – highly selective D2 antagonist
- C11 Raclopride radiolabled – commonly employed in positron emission tomography studies
- Typical antipsychotics
- SV 293
- Buspirone D2 presynaptic autoreceptors (low dose) and postsynaptic D2 receptors (at higher doses) antagonist
- D2sh selective (presynaptic autoreceptors)
- 1-(6-(((R,S)-7-Hydroxychroman-2-yl)methylamino]hexyl)-3-((S)-1-methylpyrrolidin-2-yl)pyridinium bromide (compound 2, D2R agonist and nAChR antagonist)
Functionally selective ligands
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This original observation of TAAR1 and DA D2R interaction has subsequently been confirmed and expanded upon with observations that both receptors can heterodimerize with each other under certain conditions ... Additional DA D2R/TAAR1 interactions with functional consequences are revealed by the results of experiments demonstrating that in addition to the cAMP/PKA pathway (Panas et al., 2012) stimulation of TAAR1-mediated signaling is linked to activation of the Ca++/PKC/NFAT pathway (Panas et al.,2012) and the DA D2R-coupled, G protein-independent AKT/GSK3 signaling pathway (Espinoza et al., 2015; Harmeier et al., 2015), such that concurrent TAAR1 and DA DR2R activation could result in diminished signaling in one pathway (e.g. cAMP/PKA) but retention of signaling through another (e.g., Ca++/PKC/NFA)
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Interaction of TAAR1 with D2R altered the subcellular localization of TAAR1 and increased D2R agonist binding affinity.
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