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External IDsGeneCards: [1]
RefSeq (mRNA)



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G-protein coupled receptor 3 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the GPR3 gene.[1][2] The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the G protein-coupled receptor family of transmembrane receptors and is involved in signal transduction.


GPR3 activates adenylate cyclase in the absence of ligand.[3] GPR3 is expressed in mammalian oocytes where it maintains meiotic arrest and is thought to be a communication link between oocytes and the surrounding somatic tissue.[4] It has been proposed that sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) and sphingosylphosphorylcholine (SPC) are GPR3 ligands,[5][6] however this result was not confirmed in a β-arrestin recruitment assay.[7]


  1. Marchese A, Docherty JM, Nguyen T, Heiber M, Cheng R, Heng HH, Tsui LC, Shi X, George SR, O'Dowd BF (Mar 1995). "Cloning of human genes encoding novel G protein-coupled receptors". Genomics. 23 (3): 609–18. doi:10.1006/geno.1994.1549. PMID 7851889.
  2. "Entrez Gene: GPR3 G protein-coupled receptor 3".
  3. Eggerickx D, Denef JF, Labbe O, Hayashi Y, Refetoff S, Vassart G, Parmentier M, Libert F (August 1995). "Molecular cloning of an orphan G-protein-coupled receptor that constitutively activates adenylate cyclase". Biochem. J. 309 ( Pt 3) (Pt 3): 837–43. PMC 1135708. PMID 7639700.
  4. Mehlmann LM, Saeki Y, Tanaka S, Brennan TJ, Evsikov AV, Pendola FL, Knowles BB, Eppig JJ, Jaffe LA (December 2004). "The Gs-linked receptor GPR3 maintains meiotic arrest in mammalian oocytes". Science. 306 (5703): 1947–50. doi:10.1126/science.1103974. PMID 15591206.
  5. Uhlenbrock K, Gassenhuber H, Kostenis E (November 2002). "Sphingosine 1-phosphate is a ligand of the human gpr3, gpr6 and gpr12 family of constitutively active G protein-coupled receptors". Cell. Signal. 14 (11): 941–53. doi:10.1016/S0898-6568(02)00041-4. PMID 12220620.
  6. Hinckley M, Vaccari S, Horner K, Chen R, Conti M (November 2005). "The G-protein-coupled receptors GPR3 and GPR12 are involved in cAMP signaling and maintenance of meiotic arrest in rodent oocytes". Dev. Biol. 287 (2): 249–61. doi:10.1016/j.ydbio.2005.08.019. PMID 16229830.
  7. Yin H, Chu A, Li W, Wang B, Shelton F, Otero F, Nguyen DG, Caldwell JS, Chen YA (May 2009). "Lipid G Protein-coupled Receptor Ligand Identification Using β-Arrestin PathHunter™ Assay". J. Biol. Chem. 284 (18): 12328–38. doi:10.1074/jbc.M806516200. PMC 2673301. PMID 19286662.

Further reading