Metabotropic glutamate receptor 8

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Identifiers
Aliases
External IDsGeneCards: [1]
Orthologs
SpeciesHumanMouse
Entrez
Ensembl
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RefSeq (mRNA)

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RefSeq (protein)

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Metabotropic glutamate receptor 8 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the GRM8 gene.[1][2]

Function

L-glutamate is the major excitatory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system and activates both ionotropic and metabotropic glutamate receptors. Glutamatergic neurotransmission is involved in most aspects of normal brain function and can be perturbed in many neuropathologic conditions. The metabotropic glutamate receptors are a family of G protein-coupled receptors, that have been divided into 3 groups on the basis of sequence homology, putative signal transduction mechanisms, and pharmacologic properties. Group I includes GRM1 and GRM5 and these receptors have been shown to activate phospholipase C. Group II includes GRM2 and GRM3 while Group III includes GRM4, GRM6, GRM7 and GRM8. Group II and III receptors are linked to the inhibition of the cyclic AMP cascade but differ in their agonist selectivities. Alternative splice variants of GRM8 have been described but their full-length nature has not been determined.[2]

Ligands

See also

Model organisms

Model organisms have been used in the study of GRM8 function. A conditional knockout mouse line called Grm8tm2a(KOMP)Wtsi was generated at the Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute.[4] Male and female animals underwent a standardized phenotypic screen[5] to determine the effects of deletion.[6][7][8][9] Additional screens performed: - In-depth immunological phenotyping[10]



References

  1. Scherer SW, Duvoisin RM, Kuhn R, Heng HH, Belloni E, Tsui LC (Mar 1997). "Localization of two metabotropic glutamate receptor genes, GRM3 and GRM8, to human chromosome 7q". Genomics. 31 (2): 230–3. doi:10.1006/geno.1996.0036. PMID 8824806.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  2. 2.0 2.1 "Entrez Gene: GRM8 glutamate receptor, metabotropic 8".<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  3. Thomas NK, Wright RA, Howson PA, Kingston AE, Schoepp DD, Jane DE (2001). "(S)-3,4-DCPG, a potent and selective mGlu8a receptor agonist, activates metabotropic glutamate receptors on primary afferent terminals in the neonatal rat spinal cord". Neuropharmacology. 40 (3): 311–8. doi:10.1016/S0028-3908(00)00169-6. PMID 11166323.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  4. Gerdin AK (2010). "The Sanger Mouse Genetics Programme: high throughput characterisation of knockout mice". Acta Ophthalmologica. 88: 925–7. doi:10.1111/j.1755-3768.2010.4142.x.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  5. 5.0 5.1 "International Mouse Phenotyping Consortium".<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  6. Skarnes WC, Rosen B, West AP, Koutsourakis M, Bushell W, Iyer V, Mujica AO, Thomas M, Harrow J, Cox T, Jackson D, Severin J, Biggs P, Fu J, Nefedov M, de Jong PJ, Stewart AF, Bradley A (Jun 2011). "A conditional knockout resource for the genome-wide study of mouse gene function". Nature. 474 (7351): 337–42. doi:10.1038/nature10163. PMC 3572410. PMID 21677750.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  7. Dolgin E (Jun 2011). "Mouse library set to be knockout". Nature. 474 (7351): 262–3. doi:10.1038/474262a. PMID 21677718.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  8. Collins FS, Rossant J, Wurst W (Jan 2007). "A mouse for all reasons". Cell. 128 (1): 9–13. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2006.12.018. PMID 17218247.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  9. White JK, Gerdin AK, Karp NA, Ryder E, Buljan M, Bussell JN, Salisbury J, Clare S, Ingham NJ, Podrini C, Houghton R, Estabel J, Bottomley JR, Melvin DG, Sunter D, Adams NC, Sanger Institute Mouse Genetics Project, Tannahill D, Logan DW, Macarthur DG, Flint J, Mahajan VB, Tsang SH, Smyth I, Watt FM, Skarnes WC, Dougan G, Adams DJ, Ramirez-Solis R, Bradley A, Steel KP (2013). "Genome-wide generation and systematic phenotyping of knockout mice reveals new roles for many genes". Cell. 154 (2): 452–64. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2013.06.022. PMC 3717207. PMID 23870131.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  10. 10.0 10.1 "Infection and Immunity Immunophenotyping (3i) Consortium".<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>

Further reading

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  • Scherer SW, Soder S, Duvoisin RM, Huizenga JJ, Tsui LC (1997). "The human metabotropic glutamate receptor 8 (GRM8) gene: a disproportionately large gene located at 7q31.3-q32.1". Genomics. 44 (2): 232–6. doi:10.1006/geno.1997.4842. PMID 9299241.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  • Wu S, Wright RA, Rockey PK, Burgett SG, Arnold JS, Rosteck PR, Johnson BG, Schoepp DD, Belagaje RM (1998). "Group III human metabotropic glutamate receptors 4, 7 and 8: molecular cloning, functional expression, and comparison of pharmacological properties in RGT cells". Brain Res. Mol. Brain Res. 53 (1–2): 88–97. doi:10.1016/S0169-328X(97)00277-5. PMID 9473604.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  • Malherbe P, Kratzeisen C, Lundstrom K, Richards JG, Faull RL, Mutel V (1999). "Cloning and functional expression of alternative spliced variants of the human metabotropic glutamate receptor 8". Brain Res. Mol. Brain Res. 67 (2): 201–10. doi:10.1016/S0169-328X(99)00050-9. PMID 10216218.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  • Thomas NK, Wright RA, Howson PA, Kingston AE, Schoepp DD, Jane DE (2001). "(S)-3,4-DCPG, a potent and selective mGlu8a receptor agonist, activates metabotropic glutamate receptors on primary afferent terminals in the neonatal rat spinal cord". Neuropharmacology. 40 (3): 311–8. doi:10.1016/S0028-3908(00)00169-6. PMID 11166323.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  • Enz R (2002). "The actin-binding protein Filamin-A interacts with the metabotropic glutamate receptor type 7". FEBS Lett. 514 (2–3): 184–8. doi:10.1016/S0014-5793(02)02361-X. PMID 11943148.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  • Tang Z, El Far O, Betz H, Scheschonka A (2006). "Pias1 interaction and sumoylation of metabotropic glutamate receptor 8". J. Biol. Chem. 280 (46): 38153–9. doi:10.1074/jbc.M508168200. PMID 16144832.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  • Kobayashi Y, Akiyoshi J, Kanehisa M, Ichioka S, Tanaka Y, Tsuru J, Hanada H, Kodama K, Isogawa K, Tsutsumi T (2007). "Lack of polymorphism in genes encoding mGluR 7, mGluR 8, GABA(A) receptor alfa-6 subunit and nociceptin/orphanin FQ receptor and panic disorder". Psychiatr. Genet. 17 (1): 9. doi:10.1097/YPG.0b013e32801118bc. PMID 17167337.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>

This article incorporates text from the United States National Library of Medicine, which is in the public domain.