Taste receptor, type 2, member 31, also known as TAS2R31, is a protein which in humans is encoded by the TAS2R31gene. This bitter taste receptor has been shown to respond to saccharin in vitro.
TAS2R31 is also expressed in the smooth muscle of human airways, along with several other bitter taste receptors. Their activation in these cells causes an increase in intracellular calcium ion, which in turn triggers the opening of potassium channels which hyperpolarize the membrane and cause the smooth muscle to relax. Hence, activation of these receptors leads to bronchodilation.
↑Kuhn C, Bufe B, Winnig M, Hofmann T, Frank O, Behrens M, Lewtschenko T, Slack JP, Ward CD, Meyerhof W (November 2004). "Bitter taste receptors for saccharin and acesulfame K". J. Neurosci. 24 (45): 10260–5. doi:10.1523/JNEUROSCI.1225-04.2004. PMID15537898.
Bufe B, Hofmann T, Krautwurst D, Raguse JD, Meyerhof W (2002). "The human TAS2R16 receptor mediates bitter taste in response to beta-glucopyranosides". Nat. Genet. 32 (3): 397–401. doi:10.1038/ng1014. PMID12379855.
Zhang Y, Hoon MA, Chandrashekar J, Mueller KL, Cook B, Wu D, Zuker CS, Ryba NJ (2003). "Coding of sweet, bitter, and umami tastes: different receptor cells sharing similar signaling pathways". Cell. 112 (3): 293–301. doi:10.1016/S0092-8674(03)00071-0. PMID12581520.
Conte C, Ebeling M, Marcuz A, Nef P, Andres-Barquin PJ (2003). "Identification and characterization of human taste receptor genes belonging to the TAS2R family". Cytogenet. Genome Res. 98 (1): 45–53. doi:10.1159/000068546. PMID12584440.
Kuhn C, Bufe B, Winnig M, Hofmann T, Frank O, Behrens M, Lewtschenko T, Slack JP, Ward CD, Meyerhof W (2005). "Bitter taste receptors for saccharin and acesulfame K.". J. Neurosci. 24 (45): 10260–5. doi:10.1523/JNEUROSCI.1225-04.2004. PMID15537898.