G protein-coupled estrogen receptor 1 (GPER), also known as G protein-coupled receptor 30 (GPR30), is a protein that in humans is encoded by the GPERgene. GPER binds to and is activated by the female sex hormone estradiol and is responsible for some of the rapid effects that estradiol has on cells.
The classical estrogen receptors first characterized in 1958 are water-soluble proteins located in the interior of cells that are activated by estrogenenic hormones such as estradiol and several of its metabolites such as estrone or estriol. These proteins belong to the nuclear hormone receptor class of transcription factors that regulate gene transcription. Since it takes time for genes to be transcribed into RNA and translated into protein, the effects of estrogens binding to these classical estrogen receptors is delayed. However, estrogens are also known to have effects that are too fast to be caused by regulation of gene transcription. In 2005, it was discovered that a member of the G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) family, GPR30 also binds with high affinity to estradiol and is responsible in part for the rapid non-genomic actions of estradiol. Based on its ability to bind estradiol, GPR30 was renamed as G protein-coupled estrogen receptor (GPER). Unlike the other members of the GPCR family, which reside in the outer membrane of cells, GPER is localized in the endoplasmic reticulum.
GPER plays a role in breast cancer progression and tamoxifen resistance. GPER has also been proposed as a biomarker in triple-negative breast cancer. In patients with endometrial cancer GPER it is overexpressed and its associated with poor survival. In other tumors, there is still a controversy over the role of GPER. For example in ovarian cancer, some studies indicate a link between GPER expression and poor prognosis, while other studies do not.
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↑Santolla MF, De Francesco EM, Lappano R, Rosano C, Abonante S, Maggiolini M (July 2014). "Niacin activates the G protein estrogen receptor (GPER)-mediated signalling". Cell. Signal. 26 (7): 1466–1475. doi:10.1016/j.cellsig.2014.03.011. PMID24662263. Nicotinic acid, also known as niacin, is the water soluble vitamin B3 used for decades for the treatment of dyslipidemic diseases. Its action is mainly mediated by the G protein-coupled receptor (GPR) 109A; however, certain regulatory effects on lipid levels occur in a GPR109A-independent manner. The amide form of nicotinic acid, named nicotinamide, acts as a vitamin although neither activates the GPR109A nor exhibits the pharmacological properties of nicotinic acid. In the present study, we demonstrate for the first time that nicotinic acid and nicotinamide bind to and activate the GPER-mediated signalling in breast cancer cells and cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs)
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