Free fatty acid receptor 2

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External IDsGeneCards: [1]
RefSeq (mRNA)



RefSeq (protein)



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Free fatty acid receptor 2 (FFAR2) is a G-protein coupled receptor encoded by the FFAR2 gene.[1]


FFAR2 mRNA is expressed in adipose tissue, pancreas, spleen, lymph nodes, bone marrow, and peripheral blood mononuclear cells.[2][3] FFAR2 transcription is regulated by the XBP1 transcription factor which binds to the core promoter.[4]


Mouse studies utilizing Ffar2 gene deletions have implicated the receptor in the regulation of energy metabolism and immune responses.[5] Short Chain Fatty Acids (SCFA's) generated in the processing of fiber by intestinal microbiota act as ligands for the receptor and can affect neutrophil chemotaxis.[6] [7] However, discrepancies between the pathways activated by FFAR2 agonists in human cells and the equivalent murine counterparts have been observed.[8][9][10]


FFAR2 may interact with FFAR3 to form a FFAR2-FFAR3 receptor heteromer with signalling that is distinct from the parent homomers.[11]

See also


  1. "Entrez Gene: FFAR2 free fatty acid receptor 2".
  2. Nilsson NE, Kotarsky K, Owman C, Olde B (2003). "Identification of a free fatty acid receptor, FFA2R, expressed on leukocytes and activated by short-chain fatty acids". Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 303 (4): 1047–52. doi:10.1016/S0006-291X(03)00488-1. PMID 12684041.
  3. Le Poul E, Loison C, Struyf S (2003). "Functional characterization of human receptors for short chain fatty acids and their role in polymorphonuclear cell activation". J. Biol. Chem. 278 (28): 25481–9. doi:10.1074/jbc.M301403200. PMID 12711604.
  4. Ang Z, Er JZ, Ding JL (2015). "The short-chain fatty acid receptor GPR43 is transcriptionally regulated by XBP1 in human monocytes". Sci. Rep. 5: 8134. doi:10.1038/srep08134. PMC 4311239. PMID 25633224.
  5. Bindels, Laure B.; Dewulf, Evelyne M.; Delzenne, Nathalie M. (2013-04-01). "GPR43/FFA2: physiopathological relevance and therapeutic prospects". Trends in Pharmacological Sciences. 34 (4): 226–232. doi:10.1016/ ISSN 1873-3735. PMID 23489932.
  6. Yang, Guan (2018). "Implication of G Protein-Coupled Receptor 43 in Intestinal Inflammation: A Mini-Review". Front. Immunol. 9: 1434. doi:10.3389/fimmu.2018.01434. PMC 6023978. PMID 29988393.
  7. D'Souza, WN (2017-07-20). "Differing roles for short chain fatty acids and GPR43 agonism in the regulation of intestinal barrier function and immune responses". PLoS One. 12 (7): e0180190. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0180190. PMC 5519041. PMID 28727837.
  8. Dewulf, Evelyne M.; Ge, Qian; Bindels, Laure B.; Sohet, Florence M.; Cani, Patrice D.; Brichard, Sonia M.; Delzenne, Nathalie M. (2013-01-17). "Evaluation of the relationship between GPR43 and adiposity in human". Nutrition & Metabolism. 10 (1): 11. doi:10.1186/1743-7075-10-11. PMC 3577645. PMID 23327542.
  9. Priyadarshini, Medha; Villa, Stephanie R.; Fuller, Miles; Wicksteed, Barton; Mackay, Charles R.; Alquier, Thierry; Poitout, Vincent; Mancebo, Helena; Mirmira, Raghavendra G. (2015-07-01). "An Acetate-Specific GPCR, FFAR2, Regulates Insulin Secretion". Molecular Endocrinology. 29 (7): 1055–1066. doi:10.1210/me.2015-1007. ISSN 1944-9917. PMC 4484778. PMID 26075576.
  10. Ang, Zhiwei; Er, Jun Zhi; Tan, Nguan Soon; Lu, Jinhua; Liou, Yih-Cherng; Grosse, Johannes; Ding, Jeak Ling (2016-09-26). "Human and mouse monocytes display distinct signalling and cytokine profiles upon stimulation with FFAR2/FFAR3 short-chain fatty acid receptor agonists". Scientific Reports. 6: 34145. doi:10.1038/srep34145. ISSN 2045-2322. PMC 5036191. PMID 27667443.
  11. Ang, Zhiwei; Xiong, Ding; Wu, Min; Ding, Jeak Ling (2017-09-07). "FFAR2-FFAR3 receptor heteromerization modulates short-chain fatty acid sensing". The FASEB Journal. 32 (1): –201700252RR. doi:10.1096/fj.201700252RR. ISSN 0892-6638. PMC 5731126. PMID 28883043. Retrieved 2017-09-10.

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