There are two known receptors for the vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) termed VPAC1 and VPAC2. These receptors bind both VIP and pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) to some degree. Both receptors are members of the 7 transmembrane G protein-coupled receptor family.
VPAC1 is distributed widely in the CNS, liver, lung, intestine and T-lymphocytes.
VPAC2 is found in the CNS, pancreas, skeletal muscle, heart, kidney, adipose tissue, testis, and stomach.
Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) and pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating peptide (PACAP) receptors are activated by the endogenous peptides VIP, PACAP-38, PACAP-27, peptide histidine isoleucineamide (PHI), peptide histidine methionineamide (PHM) and peptide histidine valine (PHV). “PACAP type II receptors” (VPAC1 and VPAC2 receptors) display comparable affinity for PACAP and VIP, whereas PACAP-27 and PACAP-38 are >100 fold more potent than VIP as agonists of most isoforms of the PAC1 receptor.
- ↑ Laburthe M, Couvineau A, Marie JC (2002). "VPAC receptors for VIP and PACAP". Recept. Channels. 8 (3–4): 137–53. doi:10.1080/10606820213680. PMID 12529932.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- ↑ Laburthe M, Couvineau A (2002). "Molecular pharmacology and structure of VPAC Receptors for VIP and PACAP". Regul. Pept. 108 (2–3): 165–73. doi:10.1016/S0167-0115(02)00099-X. PMID 12220741.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- ↑ "VIP and PACAP receptors". IUPHAR Guide to Pharmacology. The British Pharmacological Society (BPS) and the International Union of Basic and Clinical Pharmacology (IUPHAR).<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>