Prolactin receptor

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Prolactin Receptor
Other data
LocusChr. 5 p13-p12

The prolactin receptor (PRLR) is a type I cytokine receptor[1] encoded in humans by the PRLR gene on chromosome 5p13-14. The PRLR binds prolactin (PRL) as a transmembrane receptor. Thus the PRLR contains an extracellular region to bind PRL, a transmembrane region, and a cytoplasmatic region. The PRLR can also bind to and be activated by growth hormone (GH) and human placental lactogen (hPL), in addition to prolactin.

Expression of the PRLR protein is found within cells of the mammary glands[2] in accordance with its role in lactation, but also is the subject of attention for its diverse and emerging roles by its expression in adipose tissue,[3] pancreatic islet cell proliferation,[4] and immune responses.[5]

The PRLR is a cytokine receptor[6] and second messenger cascades include the JAK-STAT pathway, JAK-RUSH pathway,[7][8] Ras-Raf-MAPK, and PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway.[9] Disruption of PRLR signaling pathways have been linked to tumorigenesis and breast cancer development.[10]

The PRLR has been found to be essential for lobuloalveolar maturation of the mammary glands during pregnancy, as evidenced by the fact that PRLR knockout mice show severely impaired development of lobuloalveolar structures.[11][12]

See also


  1. Brooks CL (August 2012). "Molecular mechanisms of prolactin and its receptor". review. Endocrine Reviews. 33 (4): 504–25. doi:10.1210/er.2011-1040. PMC 3410225. PMID 22577091.
  2. Baran N, Kelly PA, Binart N (April 2002). "Characterization of a prolactin-regulated gene in reproductive tissues using the prolactin receptor knockout mouse model". primary. Biology of Reproduction. 66 (4): 1210–8. PMID 11906943.
  3. Viengchareun S, Servel N, Fève B, Freemark M, Lombès M, Binart N (February 2008). "Prolactin receptor signaling is essential for perinatal brown adipocyte function: a role for insulin-like growth factor-2". primary. PLOS One. 3 (2): e1535. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0001535. PMC 2212135. PMID 18253483.
  4. Arumugam R, Fleenor D, Freemark M (August 2014). "Knockdown of prolactin receptors in a pancreatic beta cell line: effects on DNA synthesis, apoptosis, and gene expression". primary. Endocrine. 46 (3): 568–76. doi:10.1007/s12020-013-0073-1. PMC 3984618. PMID 24114406.
  5. Dogusan Z, Book ML, Verdood P, Yu-Lee LY, Hooghe-Peters EL (September 2000). "Prolactin activates interferon regulatory factor-1 expression in normal lympho-hemopoietic cells". primary. European Cytokine Network. 11 (3): 435–42. PMID 11022129.
  6. Trott JF, Schennink A, Petrie WK, Manjarin R, VanKlompenberg MK, Hovey RC (May 2012). "Triennial Lactation Symposium: Prolactin: The multifaceted potentiator of mammary growth and function". Journal of Animal Science. 90 (5): 1674–86. doi:10.2527/jas.2011-4682. PMID 22205663.
  7. Helmer RA, Panchoo M, Dertien JS, Bhakta SM, Hewetson A, Chilton BS (August 2010). "Prolactin-induced Jak2 phosphorylation of RUSH: a key element in Jak/RUSH signaling". Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology. 325 (1–2): 143–9. doi:10.1016/j.mce.2010.05.010. PMC 2902710. PMID 20562009.
  8. Helmer RA, Dertien JS, Chilton BS (May 2011). "Prolactin induces Jak2 phosphorylation of RUSHY195". Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology. 338 (1–2): 79–83. doi:10.1016/j.mce.2011.03.009. PMID 21457752.
  9. Clevenger CV, Furth PA, Hankinson SE, Schuler LA (February 2003). "The role of prolactin in mammary carcinoma". Endocrine Reviews. 24 (1): 1–27. doi:10.1210/er.2001-0036. PMC 1698952. PMID 12588805.
  10. Z. Nouhi, N. Chughtai, S. Hartley, E. Cocolakis, J.J. Lebrun, S. Ali Defining the role of prolactin as an invasion suppressor hormone in breast cancer cells Cancer Res, 66 (2006), pp. 1824-1832
  11. Horseman ND (6 December 2012). Prolactin. Springer Science & Business Media. pp. 227–. ISBN 978-1-4615-1683-5.
  12. Bland KI, Copeland EM (9 September 2009). The Breast: Comprehensive Management of Benign and Malignant Diseases. Elsevier Health Sciences. pp. 44–45. ISBN 1-4377-1121-9.

External links