Neuropeptide S

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Neuropeptide S

Neuropeptide S (NPS) is a neuropeptide found in human and mammalian brain, mainly produced by neurons in the amygdala and between Barrington's nucleus and the locus coeruleus, although NPS-responsive neurons extend projections into many other brain areas.[1][2][3] NPS binds specifically to a G protein-coupled receptor, NPSR.[4][5] Animal studies show that NPS suppresses anxiety and appetite, induces wakefulness and hyperactivity, including hyper-sexuality, and plays a significant role in the extinction of conditioned fear.[6][7][8][9][10][11][12] It has also been shown to significantly enhance dopamine activity in the mesolimbic pathway,[12] and inhibits motility and increases permeability in neurocrine fashion acting through NO in the myenteric plexus in rats and humans.[13]

Synthetic ligands

The non-peptide NPS receptor antagonist SHA-68 blocks the effects of NPS in animals and is anxiogenic.[14] Several peptide derived NPS agonists and antagonists have also been developed.[15][16][17][18][19]

Peptide sequence

Below are the sequences of mature neuropeptide S in several representative species in which it is expressed:

species sequence MW


  1. Xu YL, Gall CM, Jackson VR, Civelli O, Reinscheid RK (Jan 2007). "Distribution of neuropeptide S receptor mRNA and neurochemical characteristics of neuropeptide S-expressing neurons in the rat brain". The Journal of Comparative Neurology. 500 (1): 84–102. doi:10.1002/cne.21159. PMID 17099900.
  2. Jüngling K, Seidenbecher T, Sosulina L, Lesting J, Sangha S, Clark SD, Okamura N, Duangdao DM, Xu YL, Reinscheid RK, Pape HC (Jul 2008). "Neuropeptide S-mediated control of fear expression and extinction: role of intercalated GABAergic neurons in the amygdala". Neuron. 59 (2): 298–310. doi:10.1016/j.neuron.2008.07.002. PMC 2610688. PMID 18667157.
  3. Meis S, Bergado-Acosta JR, Yanagawa Y, Obata K, Stork O, Munsch T (2008). Grothe B, ed. "Identification of a neuropeptide S responsive circuitry shaping amygdala activity via the endopiriform nucleus". PLoS One. 3 (7): e2695. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0002695. PMC 2442874. PMID 18628994. open access publication – free to read
  4. Reinscheid RK, Xu YL (Dec 2005). "Neuropeptide S and its receptor: a newly deorphanized G protein-coupled receptor system". The Neuroscientist. 11 (6): 532–8. doi:10.1177/1073858405276405. PMID 16282594.
  5. Reinscheid RK (2008). "Neuropeptide S: anatomy, pharmacology, genetics and physiological functions". Results and Problems in Cell Differentiation. 46: 145–58. doi:10.1007/400_2007_051. PMID 18204825.
  6. Xu YL, Reinscheid RK, Huitron-Resendiz S, Clark SD, Wang Z, Lin SH, Brucher FA, Zeng J, Ly NK, Henriksen SJ, de Lecea L, Civelli O (Aug 2004). "Neuropeptide S: a neuropeptide promoting arousal and anxiolytic-like effects". Neuron. 43 (4): 487–97. doi:10.1016/j.neuron.2004.08.005. PMID 15312648.
  7. Reinscheid RK, Xu YL (Nov 2005). "Neuropeptide S as a novel arousal promoting peptide transmitter". The FEBS Journal. 272 (22): 5689–93. doi:10.1111/j.1742-4658.2005.04982.x. PMID 16279934.
  8. Okamura N, Reinscheid RK (Aug 2007). "Neuropeptide S: a novel modulator of stress and arousal". Stress. 10 (3): 221–6. doi:10.1080/10253890701248673. PMID 17613937.
  9. Leonard SK, Dwyer JM, Sukoff Rizzo SJ, Platt B, Logue SF, Neal SJ, Malberg JE, Beyer CE, Schechter LE, Rosenzweig-Lipson S, Ring RH (May 2008). "Pharmacology of neuropeptide S in mice: therapeutic relevance to anxiety disorders". Psychopharmacology. 197 (4): 601–11. doi:10.1007/s00213-008-1080-4. PMID 18311561.
  10. Rizzi A, Vergura R, Marzola G, Ruzza C, Guerrini R, Salvadori S, Regoli D, Calo G (May 2008). "Neuropeptide S is a stimulatory anxiolytic agent: a behavioural study in mice". British Journal of Pharmacology. 154 (2): 471–9. doi:10.1038/bjp.2008.96. PMC 2442439. PMID 18376418.
  11. Vitale G, Filaferro M, Ruggieri V, Pennella S, Frigeri C, Rizzi A, Guerrini R, Calò G (Dec 2008). "Anxiolytic-like effect of neuropeptide S in the rat defensive burying". Peptides. 29 (12): 2286–91. doi:10.1016/j.peptides.2008.08.014. PMID 18793688.
  12. 12.0 12.1 Mochizuki T, Kim J, Sasaki K (May 2010). "Microinjection of neuropeptide S into the rat ventral tegmental area induces hyperactivity and increases extracellular levels of dopamine metabolites in the nucleus accumbens shell". Peptides. 31 (5): 926–31. doi:10.1016/j.peptides.2010.02.006. PMID 20156501.
  13. Wan Saudi WS, Halim MA, Rudholm-Feldreich T, Gillberg L, Rosenqvist E, Tengholm A, Sundbom M, Karlbom U, Näslund E, Webb DL, Sjöblom M, Hellström PM (Oct 2015). "Neuropeptide S inhibits gastrointestinal motility and increases mucosal permeability through nitric oxide". Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 309 (9): G625–34. doi:10.1152/ajpgi.00104.2015. PMID 26206857.
  14. Okamura N, Habay SA, Zeng J, Chamberlin AR, Reinscheid RK (Jun 2008). "Synthesis and pharmacological in vitro and in vivo profile of 3-oxo-1,1-diphenyl-tetrahydro-oxazolo[3,4-a]pyrazine-7-carboxylic acid 4-fluoro-benzylamide (SHA 68), a selective antagonist of the neuropeptide S receptor". The Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics. 325 (3): 893–901. doi:10.1124/jpet.107.135103. PMC 2583099. PMID 18337476.
  15. Roth AL, Marzola E, Rizzi A, Arduin M, Trapella C, Corti C, Vergura R, Martinelli P, Salvadori S, Regoli D, Corsi M, Cavanni P, Caló G, Guerrini R (Jul 2006). "Structure-activity studies on neuropeptide S: identification of the amino acid residues crucial for receptor activation". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 281 (30): 20809–16. doi:10.1074/jbc.M601846200. PMID 16720571.
  16. Camarda V, Trapella C, Calo G, Guerrini R, Rizzi A, Ruzza C, Fiorini S, Marzola E, Reinscheid RK, Regoli D, Salvadori S (Feb 2008). "Synthesis and biological activity of human neuropeptide S analogues modified in position 2". Journal of Medicinal Chemistry. 51 (3): 655–8. doi:10.1021/jm701204n. PMID 18181564.
  17. Camarda V, Trapella C, Calo' G, Guerrini R, Rizzi A, Ruzza C, Fiorini S, Marzola E, Reinscheid RK, Regoli D, Salvadori S (Oct 2008). "Structure-activity study at positions 3 and 4 of human neuropeptide S". Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry. 16 (19): 8841–5. doi:10.1016/j.bmc.2008.08.073. PMID 18793857.
  18. Guerrini R, Camarda V, Trapella C, Calò G, Rizzi A, Ruzza C, Fiorini S, Marzola E, Reinscheid RK, Regoli D, Salvadori S (Jan 2009). "Synthesis and biological activity of human neuropeptide S analogues modified in position 5: identification of potent and pure neuropeptide S receptor antagonists". Journal of Medicinal Chemistry. 52 (2): 524–9. doi:10.1021/jm8012294. PMC 2653091. PMID 19113861.
  19. Camarda V, Rizzi A, Ruzza C, Zucchini S, Marzola G, Marzola E, Guerrini R, Salvadori S, Reinscheid RK, Regoli D, Calò G (Feb 2009). "In vitro and in vivo pharmacological characterization of the neuropeptide s receptor antagonist [D-Cys(tBu)5]neuropeptide S". The Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics. 328 (2): 549–55. doi:10.1124/jpet.108.143867. PMC 2630366. PMID 18971372.