Dopamine receptor D5
D5 receptor is a subtype of the dopamine receptor that has a 10-fold higher affinity for dopamine than the D1 subtype. The D5 subtype is a G-protein coupled receptor, which promotes synthesis of cAMP by adenylyl cyclase via activation of Gαs/olf family of G proteins. Both D5 and D1 subtypes activate adenylyl cyclase. D1 receptors were shown to stimulate monophasic dose-dependent accumulation of cAMP in response to dopamine, and the D5 receptors were able to stimulate biphasic accumulation of cAMP under the same conditions, suggesting that D5 receptors may use a different system of secondary messengers than D1 receptors.
D5 receptor is highly homologous to the D1 receptor. Their amino acid sequences are 49% to 80% identical. D5 receptor has a long C-terminus of 93 amino acids, accounting for 26% of the entire protein. In spite of the high degree of homology between D5 and D1 receptors, their c-terminus tails have little similarity.
In humans, D5 receptor is encoded on the chromosome 4p15.1–p15.3. The gene lacks introns and encodes a product of 477 amino acids. Two pseudogenes for D5 receptor exist that share 98% sequence with each other and 95% sequence with the functional DRD5 gene. These genes contain several in-frame stop codons that prevent these genes from transcribing a functional protein.
Central nervous system
D5 receptor is expressed more widely in the CNS than its close structural homolog dopamine receptor D1. It is found in neurons in amygdala, frontal cortex, hippocampus, striatum, thalamus, hypothalamus, basal forebrain, cerebellum, and midbrain. Dopamine receptor D5 is exclusively expressed by large aspiny neurons in neostriatum of primates, which are typically cholinergic interneurons. Within a cell, D5 receptors are found on the membrane of soma and proximal dendrites. They are also sometimes located in the neuropil in the olfactory region, superior colliculus, and cerebellum. D5 receptor is also found in striatal astrocytes of the rat basal ganglia.
D5 receptors are expressed in kidneys and are involved in regulation of sodium excretion. They are located on proximal convoluted tubules, and their activation suppresses the activity of sodium-hydrogen antiporter and Na+/K+-ATPase, preventing reabsorption of sodium. D5 receptors are thought to positively regulate expression of renalase. Their faulty functioning in nephrons can contribute to hypertension.
Learning and memory
D5 receptor participates in the synaptic processes that underlie learning and memory. These receptors participate in the formation of LTD in rodent striatum, which is opposite to the D1 receptor involvement with the formation of LTP in the same brain region. D5 receptors are also associated with the consolidation of fear memories in amygdala. It has been shown that M1-Muscarinic receptors cooperate with D5 receptors and beta-2 adrenergic receptors to consolidate cued fear memory. It is suggested that these G protein-coupled receptors redundantly activate phospholipase C in basolateral amygdala. One effect of the activation of phospholipase C is deactivation of KCNQ channels. Since KCNQ channels conduct M current that raises the threshold for action potential, deactivation of these channels leads to increased neuronal excitability and enhanced memory consolidation.
Polymorphisms in the DRD5 gene, which encodes dopamine receptor D5, have been suggested to play a role in the initiation of smoking. In a study on the association of four polymorphisms of this gene with smoking, a statistical analysis suggested that there may exist a haplotype of DRD5 that is protective against initiation of smoking.
Dinucleotide repeats of DRD5 gene are associated with ADHD in humans. 136-bp allele of the gene was shown to be a protective factor against developing this disorder, and 146-bp allele of DRD5 was shown to be a risk factor for it. There exist two types of the 146-bp allele of DRD5, a long and a short one. The short dinucleotide repeat allele is associated with ADHD, but not the long one. Another allele of DRD5 that is moderately associated with ADHD susceptibility is 150 bp. In a rat model of ADHD, low density of D5 was found in the hippocampal pyramidal cell somas. Deficiency in D5 receptors may contribute to learning problems that may be associated with ADHD.
D5 receptors may be involved in burst firing of subthalamic nucleus neurons in 6-OHDA rat model of Parkinson's disease. In this animal model, blockage of D5 receptors with flupentixol reduces burst firing and improves motor deficits. Studies show that DRD5 T978C polymorphism is not associated with the susceptibility to PD, nor with the risk of developing motor fluctuations or hallucinations in PD.
Several polymorphisms in DRD5 genes have been associated with susceptibility to schizophrenia. The 148 bp allele of DRD5 was linked to increased risk of schizophrenia. Some single-nucleotide polymorphisms in this gene, including changes in rs77434921, rs1800762, rs77434921, and rs1800762, in northern Han Chinese population.
D5 receptor is believed to participate in modulation of psychostimulant-induced locomotion. Mice lacking D5 receptors show increased motor response to administration of methamphetamine than wild type mice, which suggests that these receptors have a role in controlling motor activity.
Regulation of blood pressure
D5 receptor may be involved in modulation of the neuronal pathways that regulate blood pressure. Mice lacking this receptor in their brains showed hypertension and elevated blood pressure, which may have been caused by increased sympathetic tone. D5 receptors that are expressed in kidneys are also involved in the regulation of blood pressure via modulating expression of renalase and excretion of sodium, and disturbance of these processes can contribute to hypertension as well.
D5 receptors negatively regulate production of IFNγ by NK cells. The expression of D5 receptors was shown to be upregulated in NK cells in response to prolonged stimulation with recombinant interleukin 2. This upregulation inhibits proliferation of the NK cells and suppresses synthesis of IFNγ. Activation of D5 prevents p50, part of NF-κB protein complex, from repressing the transcription of miRNA 29a. Because miRNA29a targets mRNA of IFNγ, the expression of IFNγ protein is diminished.
D5 receptors are involved in activation and differentiation of T helper 17 cells. Specifically, these receptors play a role in polarization of CD4+ T-cells into the T helper 17 cells by modulating secretion of interleukin 12 and interleukin 23 in response to stimulation with LPS.
The D1 and D5 receptors have a high degree of structural homology and few ligands are available that can distinguish between them as yet. However, there is a number of ligands that are selective for D1/5 over the other dopamine receptors. The recent development of a selective D5 antagonist has allowed the action of D1-mediated responses to be studied in the absence of a D5 component, but no selective D5 agonists are yet available.
D5 receptors show higher affinity for agonists and lower affinity for antagonists than D1 receptors.
- 4-Chloro-7-methyl-5,6,7,8,9,14-hexahydrodibenz[d,g]azecin-3-ol: antagonist, moderate binding selectivity over D1
D5 receptor has been shown to form heteromers with D2 receptors. Co-activation of these receptors within the heteromer triggers increase in intracellular calcium. This calcium signaling is dependent on Gq-11 protein signaling and Phospholipase C, as well as on the influx of extracellular calcium. Heteromers between D2 and D5 receptors are formed by adjacent arginines in ic3 (third cytoplasmic loop) of D2 receptor and three adjacent c-terminus glutamic acids in D5 receptor. Heteromerization of 2 and D5 receptors can be disrupted through changes of single amino acids in the c-terminus of the D5 receptor.
The high degree of homology between D5 and D1 receptors and their affinity for drugs with similar pharmacological profile complicate distinguishing between them in research. Antibody staining these two receptors separately is suggested to be inefficient. However, expression of D5 receptors has been assessed using immunohistochemistry. In this technique, two peptides were obtained from third exracellular loop and third intracellular loop of the receptor, and antisera were developed for staining the receptor in frozen mouse brain tissue. A method involving mRNA probes for in situ hybridization has been developed, which allowed to separately examine the expression of D1 and D5 receptors in the mouse brain.
DRD5 knockout mice can be obtained by crossing 129/SvJ1 and C57BL/6J mice. D5 receptor can also be inactivated in an animal model by flanking the DRD5 gene with loxP site, allowing to generate tissue or animal lacking functional D5 receptors. The expression of D5 receptor in vitro can also be silenced using antisense oligonucleotides.
- Polymeropoulos MH, Xiao H, Merril CR (March 1992). "The human D5 dopamine receptor (DRD5) maps on chromosome 4". Genomics. 11 (3): 777–778. doi:10.1016/0888-7543(91)90091-R. PMID 1774076.
- Sunahara RK, Guan HC, O'Dowd BF, Seeman P, Laurier LG, Ng G, George SR, Torchia J, Van Tol HH, Niznik HB (1991). "Cloning of the gene for a human dopamine D5 receptor with higher affinity for dopamine than D1". Nature. 350 (6319): 614–9. doi:10.1038/350614a0. PMID 1826762.
- Beaulieu JM, Gainetdinov RR (2011). "The physiology, signaling, and pharmacology of dopamine receptors". Pharmacol. Rev. 63 (1): 182–217. doi:10.1124/pr.110.002642. PMID 21303898.
- Mello, F. G. (October 1978). "THE ONTOGENY OF DOPAMINE-DEPENDENT INCREASE OF ADENOSINE 3',5'-CYCLIC MONOPHOSPHATE IN THE CHICK RETINA". Journal of Neurochemistry. 31 (4): 1049–1053. doi:10.1111/j.1471-4159.1978.tb00146.x. ISSN 0022-3042.
- Grandy DK, Zhang YA, Bouvier C, Zhou QY, Johnson RA, Allen L, Buck K, Bunzow JR, Salon J, Civelli O (1991). "Multiple human D5 dopamine receptor genes: a functional receptor and two pseudogenes". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 88 (20): 9175–9. doi:10.1073/pnas.88.20.9175. PMC 52675. PMID 1833775.
- Perreault ML, Jones-Tabah J, O'Dowd BF, George SR (2013). "A physiological role for the dopamine D5 receptor as a regulator of BDNF and Akt signalling in rodent prefrontal cortex". The International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology. 16 (2): 477–83. doi:10.1017/S1461145712000685. PMC 3802523. PMID 22827965.
- Tiberi M, Caron MG (1994). "High agonist-independent activity is a distinguishing feature of the dopamine D1B receptor subtype". J. Biol. Chem. 269 (45): 27925–31. PMID 7525564.
- O'Dowd BF, Nguyen T, Ji X, George SR (2013). "D5 dopamine receptor carboxyl tail involved in D5-D2 heteromer formation". Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications. 431 (3): 586–9. doi:10.1016/j.bbrc.2012.12.139. PMC 3744868. PMID 23318175.
- Eubanks JH, Altherr M, Wagner-McPherson C, McPherson JD, Wasmuth JJ, Evans GA (1992). "Localization of the D5 dopamine receptor gene to human chromosome 4p15.1-p15.3, centromeric to the Huntington's disease locus". Genomics. 12 (3): 510–6. doi:10.1016/0888-7543(92)90442-u. PMID 1532789.
- Wu J, Xiao H, Sun H, Zou L, Zhu LQ (2012). "Role of dopamine receptors in ADHD: A systematic meta-analysis". Molecular Neurobiology. 45 (3): 605–20. doi:10.1007/s12035-012-8278-5. PMID 22610946.
- Reyes S, Cottam V, Kirik D, Double KL, Halliday GM (2013). "Variability in neuronal expression of dopamine receptors and transporters in the substantia nigra". Movement Disorders. 28 (10): 1351–9. doi:10.1002/mds.25493. PMID 23674405.
- Bergson C, Mrzljak L, Smiley JF, Pappy M, Levenson R, Goldman-Rakic PS (1995). "Regional, cellular, and subcellular variations in the distribution of D1 and D5 dopamine receptors in primate brain". The Journal of Neuroscience. 15 (12): 7821–36. PMID 8613722.
- Miyazaki I, Asanuma M, Diaz-Corrales FJ, Miyoshi K, Ogawa N (2004). "Direct evidence for expression of dopamine receptors in astrocytes from basal ganglia". Brain Research. 1029 (1): 120–3. doi:10.1016/j.brainres.2004.09.014. PMID 15533323.
- Prado C, Bernales S, Pacheco R (2013). "Modulation of T-cell mediated immunity by dopamine receptor d5". Endocrine, metabolic & immune disorders drug targets. 13 (2): 184–94. doi:10.2174/1871530311313020007. PMID 23701196.
- Hussain T, Lokhandwala MF (1998). "Renal dopamine receptor function in hypertension". Hypertension. 32 (2): 187–97. doi:10.1161/01.hyp.32.2.187. PMID 9719042.
- Wang S, Lu X, Yang J, Wang H, Chen C, Han Y, Ren H, Zheng S, He D, Zhou L, Asico LD, Wang WE, Jose PA, Zeng C (2014). "Regulation of renalase expression by D5 dopamine receptors in rat renal proximal tubule cells". AJP: Renal Physiology. 306 (6): F588–96. doi:10.1152/ajprenal.00196.2013. PMC 3949042. PMID 24500688.
- Centonze D, Grande C, Saulle E, Martin AB, Gubellini P, Pavón N, Pisani A, Bernardi G, Moratalla R, Calabresi P (September 2003). "Distinct roles of D1 and D5 dopamine receptors in motor activity and striatal synaptic plasticity". The Journal of Neuroscience. 23 (24): 8506–12. PMID 13679419.
- Young MB, Thomas SA (2014). "M1-muscarinic receptors promote fear memory consolidation via phospholipase C and the M-current". Journal of Neuroscience. 34 (5): 1570–8. doi:10.1523/JNEUROSCI.1040-13.2014. PMC 3905134. PMID 24478341.
- Schroeder BC, Hechenberger M, Weinreich F, Kubisch C, Jentsch TJ (2000). "KCNQ5, a novel potassium channel broadly expressed in brain, mediates M-type currents". Journal of Biological Chemistry. 275 (31): 24089–95. doi:10.1074/jbc.M003245200. PMID 10816588.
- Sariñana J, Kitamura T, Künzler P, Sultzman L, Tonegawa S (2014). "Differential roles of the dopamine 1-class receptors, D1R and D5R, in hippocampal dependent memory". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 111 (22): 8245–50. doi:10.1073/pnas.1407395111. PMC 4050601. PMID 24843151.
- Sullivan PF, Neale MC, Silverman MA, Harris-Kerr C, Myakishev MV, Wormley B, Webb BT, Ma Y, Kendler KS, Straub RE (April 2001). "An association study of DRD5 with smoking initiation and progression to nicotine dependence". Am. J. Med. Genet. 105 (3): 259–65. doi:10.1002/ajmg.1301. PMID 11353446.
- Kim BN, Kang D, Cho SC, Park TW, Lim MH, Chung YC, Kim JW, Hwang JW, Yoo HJ, Chung US, Son JW, Yang JC, Chung SK, Lee JY, Jung YW (2009). "Shorter dinucleotide repeat length in the DRD5 gene is associated with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder". Psychiatric Genetics. 19 (1): 57. doi:10.1097/YPG.0b013e328320803c. PMID 19125111.
- Squassina A, Lanktree M, De Luca V, Jain U, Krinsky M, Kennedy JL, Muglia P (2008). "Investigation of the dopamine D5 receptor gene (DRD5) in adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder". Neuroscience Letters. 432 (1): 50–3. doi:10.1016/j.neulet.2007.12.003. PMID 18164132.
- Medin T, Rinholm JE, Owe SG, Sagvolden T, Gjedde A, Storm-Mathisen J, Bergersen LH (2013). "Low dopamine D5 receptor density in hippocampus in an animal model of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)". Neuroscience. 242: 11–20. doi:10.1016/j.neuroscience.2013.03.036. PMID 23541742.
- Chetrit J, Taupignon A, Froux L, Morin S, Bouali-Benazzouz R, Naudet F, Kadiri N, Gross CE, Bioulac B, Benazzouz A (2013). "Inhibiting subthalamic D5 receptor constitutive activity alleviates abnormal electrical activity and reverses motor impairment in a rat model of Parkinson's disease". Journal of Neuroscience. 33 (37): 14840–9. doi:10.1523/JNEUROSCI.0453-13.2013. PMID 24027284.
- Wang J, Liu ZL, Chen B (July 2001). "Dopamine D5 receptor gene polymorphism and the risk of levodopa-induced motor fluctuations in patients with Parkinson's disease". Neuroscience Letters. 308 (1): 21–4. doi:10.1016/S0304-3940(01)01971-1. PMID 11445276.
- Wang J, Zhao C, Chen B, Liu Z (January 2004). "Polymorphisms of dopamine receptor and transporter genes and hallucinations in Parkinson's disease". Neuroscience Letters. 355 (3): 193–6. doi:10.1016/j.neulet.2003.11.006. PMID 14732464.
- Muir WJ, Thomson ML, McKeon P, Mynett-Johnson L, Whitton C, Evans KL, Porteous DJ, Blackwood DH (2001). "Markers close to the dopamine D5 receptor gene (DRD5) show significant association with schizophrenia but not bipolar disorder". American Journal of Medical Genetics. 105 (2): 152–8. doi:10.1002/1096-8628(2001)9999:9999<::AID-AJMG1163>3.0.CO;2-2. PMID 11304828.
- Zhao Y, Ding M, Pang H, Xu XM, Wang BJ (2014). "Relationship between genetic polymorphisms in the DRD5 gene and paranoid schizophrenia in northern Han Chinese". Genetics and Molecular Research. 13 (1): 1609–18. doi:10.4238/2014.March.12.13. PMID 24668635.
- Hayashizaki S, Hirai S, Ito Y, Honda Y, Arime Y, Sora I, Okado H, Kodama T, Takada M (2013). "Methamphetamine increases locomotion and dopamine transporter activity in dopamine d5 receptor-deficient mice". PLoS ONE. 8 (10): e75975. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0075975. PMC 3796526. PMID 24155877.
- Hollon TR, Bek MJ, Lachowicz JE, Ariano MA, Mezey E, Ramachandran R, Wersinger SR, Soares-da-Silva P, Liu ZF, Grinberg A, Drago J, Young WS, Westphal H, Jose PA, Sibley DR (2002). "Mice lacking D5 dopamine receptors have increased sympathetic tone and are hypertensive". The Journal of Neuroscience. 22 (24): 10801–10. PMID 12486173.
- Mikulak J, Bozzo L, Roberto A, Pontarini E, Tentorio P, Hudspeth K, Lugli E, Mavilio D (2014). "Dopamine inhibits the effector functions of activated NK cells via the upregulation of the D5 receptor". The Journal of Immunology. 193 (6): 2792–800. doi:10.4049/jimmunol.1401114. PMID 25127864.
- Prado C, Contreras F, González H, Díaz P, Elgueta D, Barrientos M, Herrada AA, Lladser Á, Bernales S, Pacheco R (2012). "Stimulation of dopamine receptor D5 expressed on dendritic cells potentiates Th17-mediated immunity". The Journal of Immunology. 188 (7): 3062–70. doi:10.4049/jimmunol.1103096. PMID 22379034.
- Wood M, Dubois V, Scheller D, Gillard M (2014). "Rotigotine is a potent agonist at dopamine D1 receptors as well as at dopamine D2 and D3 receptors". British Journal of Pharmacology. 172: 1124–35. doi:10.1111/bph.12988. PMC 4314200. PMID 25339241.
- Meade JA, Free RB, Miller NR, Chun LS, Doyle TB, Moritz AE, Conroy JL, Watts VJ, Sibley DR (2014). "(-)-Stepholidine is a potent pan-dopamine receptor antagonist of both G protein- and β-arrestin-mediated signaling". Psychopharmacology. 232: 917–30. doi:10.1007/s00213-014-3726-8. PMC 5234683. PMID 25231919.
- Mohr P, Decker M, Enzensperger C, Lehmann J (2006). "Dopamine/serotonin receptor ligands. 12(1): SAR studies on hexahydro-dibenz[d,g]azecines lead to 4-chloro-7-methyl-5,6,7,8,9,14-hexahydrodibenz[d,g]azecin-3-ol, the first picomolar D5-selective dopamine-receptor antagonist". J. Med. Chem. 49 (6): 2110–2116. doi:10.1021/jm051237e. PMID 16539400.
- So CH, Verma V, Alijaniaram M, Cheng R, Rashid AJ, O'Dowd BF, George SR (2009). "Calcium signaling by dopamine D5 receptor and D5-D2 receptor hetero-oligomers occurs by a mechanism distinct from that for dopamine D1-D2 receptor hetero-oligomers". Molecular Pharmacology. 75 (4): 843–54. doi:10.1124/mol.108.051805. PMC 2684927. PMID 19171671.
- Ulfers AL, McMurry JL, Kendall DA, Mierke DF (2002). "Structure of the third intracellular loop of the human cannabinoid 1 receptor". Biochemistry. 41 (38): 11344–50. doi:10.1021/bi0259610. PMID 12234176.
- Liu F, Wan Q, Pristupa ZB, Yu XM, Wang YT, Niznik HB (2000). "Direct protein–protein coupling enables cross-talk between dopamine D5 and gamma-aminobutyric acid A receptors". Nature. 403 (6767): 274–80. doi:10.1038/35002014. PMID 10659839.
- Missale C, Fiorentini C, Collo G, Spano P (2010). "The neurobiology of dopamine receptors: Evolution from the dual concept to heterodimer complexes". Journal of Receptors and Signal Transduction. 30 (5): 347–54. doi:10.3109/10799893.2010.506192. PMID 20684667.
- Heyer J, Xiao Q, Bugaj-Gaweda B, Ramboz S, Unterbeck A (2002). "Conditional inactivation of the dopamine receptor 5 gene: Flanking the Drd5 gene with loxP sites". genesis. 32 (2): 102–4. doi:10.1002/gene.10069. PMID 11857790.
- Missale C, Nash SR, Robinson SW, Jaber M, Caron MG (1998). "Dopamine receptors: from structure to function". Physiol. Rev. 78 (1): 189–225. doi:10.1152/physrev.1922.214.171.124. PMID 9457173.
- Grandy DK, Allen LJ, Zhang Y, Magenis RE, Civelli O (1992). "Chromosomal localization of three human D5 dopamine receptor genes". Genomics. 13 (4): 968–973. doi:10.1016/0888-7543(92)90009-H. PMID 1387108.
- Eubanks JH, Altherr M, Wagner-McPherson C, McPherson JD, Wasmuth JJ, Evans GA (1992). "Localization of the D5 dopamine receptor gene to human chromosome 4p15.1-p15.3, centromeric to the Huntington's disease locus". Genomics. 12 (3): 510–516. doi:10.1016/0888-7543(92)90442-U. PMID 1532789.
- Sunahara RK, Guan HC, O'Dowd BF, Seeman P, Laurier LG, Ng G, George SR, Torchia J, Van Tol HH, Niznik HB (1991). "Cloning of the gene for a human dopamine D5 receptor with higher affinity for dopamine than D1". Nature. 350 (6319): 614–619. doi:10.1038/350614a0. PMID 1826762.
- Tiberi M, Jarvie KR, Silvia C, Falardeau P, Gingrich JA, Godinot N, Bertrand L, Yang-Feng TL, Fremeau RT, Caron MG (1991). "Cloning, molecular characterization, and chromosomal assignment of a gene encoding a second D1 dopamine receptor subtype: differential expression pattern in rat brain compared with the D1A receptor". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 88 (17): 7491–7495. doi:10.1073/pnas.88.17.7491. PMC 52326. PMID 1831904.
- Grandy DK, Zhang YA, Bouvier C, Zhou QY, Johnson RA, Allen L, Buck K, Bunzow JR, Salon J, Civelli O (1991). "Multiple human D5 dopamine receptor genes: a functional receptor and two pseudogenes". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 88 (20): 9175–9179. doi:10.1073/pnas.88.20.9175. PMC 52675. PMID 1833775.
- Weinshank RL, Adham N, Macchi M, Olsen MA, Branchek TA, Hartig PR (1991). "Molecular cloning and characterization of a high affinity dopamine receptor (D1 beta) and its pseudogene". J. Biol. Chem. 266 (33): 22427–35. PMID 1834671.
- Sobell JL, Lind TJ, Sigurdson DC, Zald DH, Snitz BE, Grove WM, Heston LL, Sommer SS (1995). "The D5 dopamine receptor gene in schizophrenia: identification of a nonsense change and multiple missense changes but lack of association with disease". Hum. Mol. Genet. 4 (4): 507–514. doi:10.1093/hmg/4.4.507. PMID 7633397.
- Beischlag TV, Marchese A, Meador-Woodruff JH, Damask SP, O'Dowd BF, Tyndale RF, van Tol HH, Seeman P, Niznik HB (1995). "The human dopamine D5 receptor gene: cloning and characterization of the 5'-flanking and promoter region". Biochemistry. 34 (17): 5960–5970. doi:10.1021/bi00017a025. PMID 7727453.
- Sherrington R, Mankoo B, Attwood J, Kalsi G, Curtis D, Buetow K, Povey S, Gurling H (1994). "Cloning of the human dopamine D5 receptor gene and identification of a highly polymorphic microsatellite for the DRD5 locus that shows tight linkage to the chromosome 4p reference marker RAF1P1". Genomics. 18 (2): 423–425. doi:10.1006/geno.1993.1489. PMID 8288248.
- Sidhu A, Kimura K, Uh M, White BH, Patel S (1998). "Multiple coupling of human D5 dopamine receptors to guanine nucleotide binding proteins Gs and Gz". J. Neurochem. 70 (6): 2459–2467. doi:10.1046/j.1471-4159.1998.70062459.x. PMID 9603210.
- Cargill M, Altshuler D, Ireland J, Sklar P, Ardlie K, Patil N, Shaw N, Lane CR, Lim EP, Kalyanaraman N, Nemesh J, Ziaugra L, Friedland L, Rolfe A, Warrington J, Lipshutz R, Daley GQ, Lander ES (1999). "Characterization of single-nucleotide polymorphisms in coding regions of human genes". Nat. Genet. 22 (3): 231–238. doi:10.1038/10290. PMID 10391209.
- Liu F, Wan Q, Pristupa ZB, Yu XM, Wang YT, Niznik HB (2000). "Direct protein–protein coupling enables cross-talk between dopamine D5 and gamma-aminobutyric acid A receptors". Nature. 403 (6767): 274–280. doi:10.1038/35002014. PMID 10659839.
- Misbahuddin A, Placzek MR, Chaudhuri KR, Wood NW, Bhatia KP, Warner TT (2004). "A polymorphism in the dopamine receptor DRD5 is associated with blepharospasm". Neurology. 58 (1): 124–6. doi:10.1212/wnl.58.1.124. PMID 11781417.
- Kabbani N, Negyessy L, Lin R, Goldman-Rakic P, Levenson R (2002). "Interaction with neuronal calcium sensor NCS-1 mediates desensitization of the D2 dopamine receptor". J. Neurosci. 22 (19): 8476–86. PMID 12351722.
- Hemby SE, Trojanowski JQ, Ginsberg SD (2003). "Neuron-specific age-related decreases in dopamine receptor subtype mRNAs". J. Comp. Neurol. 456 (2): 176–183. doi:10.1002/cne.10525. PMC 4048549. PMID 12509874.
- Zheng S, Yu P, Zeng C, Wang Z, Yang Z, Andrews PM, Felder RA, Jose PA (2003). "Galpha12- and Galpha13-protein subunit linkage of D5 dopamine receptors in the nephron". Hypertension. 41 (3): 604–610. doi:10.1161/01.HYP.0000057422.75590.D7. PMID 12623966.
- "Dopamine Receptors: D1". IUPHAR Database of Receptors and Ion Channels. International Union of Basic and Clinical Pharmacology.
- DRD5+protein,+human at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH)