Gs alpha subunit
|GNAS complex locus|
|Locus||Chr. 20 q13.2-13.3|
The Gs alpha subunit (Gαs, Gsα, or Gs protein) is a heterotrimeric G protein subunit that activates the cAMP-dependent pathway by activating adenylyl cyclase. It is one of the three main families of G proteins: Gαi/Gαo, Gαq, and Gαs. A mnemonic for remembering this subunit is to look at the first letter (Gαs = Adenylate Cyclase stimulator).
The G protein-coupled receptors that couple to this kind of G-protein include:
- 5-HT receptors types 5-HT4 and 5-HT7
- ACTH receptor a.k.a. MC2R
- Adenosine receptor types A2a and A2b
- Arginine vasopressin receptor 2
- β-adrenergic receptors types β1, β2 and β3
- Calcitonin receptor
- Calcitonin gene-related peptide receptor
- Corticotropin-releasing hormone receptor
- Dopamine receptors D1-like family (D1 and D5)
- Gastric inhibitory polypeptide receptor
- Glucagon receptor
- Growth-hormone-releasing hormone receptor
- Histamine H2 receptor
- Luteinizing hormone/choriogonadotropin receptor
- Melanocortin receptor: MC1R, MC2R (a.k.a. ACTH receptor), MC3R, MC4R, MC5R
- Parathyroid hormone receptor 1
- Prostaglandin receptor types D2 and I2
- Secretin receptor
- Thyrotropin receptor
- Trace amine-associated receptor 1
The general function of Gs is to activate adenylyl cyclase, which, in turn, produces cAMP, which, in turn activates cAMP-dependent protein kinase. Further effects of Gs are thus found in function of cAMP-dependent protein kinase.
It provides a step in signal transduction. Amplification of the signal occurs for instance because the receptor activates several Gs. However, each Gs activates only one adenylate cyclase.
- ↑ Ellis C, Nature Reviews Drug Discovery GPCR Questionnaire Participants (July 2004). "The state of GPCR research in 2004". Nature Reviews. Drug Discovery. 3 (7): 575, 577–626. doi:10.1038/nrd1458. PMID 15272499.
- ↑ 2.0 2.1 Purves D, Augustine GJ, Fitzpatrick D, Hall WC, LaMantia AS, White LE, eds. (2007). Neuroscience (4th ed.). New York: W. H. Freeman. p. 155. ISBN 978-0-87893-697-7.
- G(s)alpha at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH)
- GNAS+protein,+human at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH)
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