Ganglioneuroma differential diagnosis

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Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1]Associate Editor(s)-in-Chief: Sujit Routray, M.D. [2]


Ganglioglioma must be differentiated from neuroblastoma, ganglioneuroblastoma, spinal schwannoma, spinal neurofibroma, adrenal adenoma, adrenal carcinoma, and pheochromocytoma.[1][2]

Differentiating Ganglioneuroma from other Diseases

Ganglioneuroma must be differentiated Neurofibroma must be differentiated from:[3][4][5]

Differentiating neurofibroma from other diseases
Disease entity Etiology (Genetic or others) Histopathological findings Immunohistochemical staining Risk factors Common site of involvement Clinical manifestations Other associated features

Can be sporadic or as a part of Neurofibromatosis 1 and 2

Neurofibroma with degenerative atypia ("ancient change") has following microscopic features:

Positive for:

Negative for:

Schwannoma[17][18][19][20][21] Positive for:

Negative for:

Symptoms of schwannoma depend on the location of the tumor:

Palisaded encapsulated neuroma (PEN) /solitary circumscribed neuroma[22] Positive for:

Negative for:

90% lesions affect the face involving:

Remaining 10% can occur anywhere in body involving:

Traumatic neuroma[23][24][25][26] Positive for: Most common oral locations are:

Rarely involves:

Also known as:
Neurotized melanocytic nevus[27][28][29][30] Positive for:

Negative for:

Can occur anywhere in body, mostly involving following areas: _
Cutaneous myxoma (Superficial angiomyxoma)[31][32][33][34] Positive for:

Negative for:

Associated with Carney's complex/syndrome which includes following:

May be associated with NAME or LAMB syndrome

Nerve sheath myxoma[35][36][37][38][39][40] Positive for: _ Can occur anywhere in body:
Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor (MPNST)/malignant schwannoma[41][42][43][44][45][46]

Electron microscopy shows:

Positive for:

In case of glandular differentiation (malignant), positive for:

Negative for:

Associated with:

May be associated with:

Bulky deep-seated tumor usually arising from major nerves in:
Dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans (DFSP) Positive for:

Negative for:

Spindle cell lipoma Positive for:

Spindle cells are negative for:

  • Multiple well-circumscribed painless nodules involving several body parts
Ganglioneuroma[47][48] Genes involved in the pathogenesis of ganglioneuroma include:

Two histologic subtypes:

Positive for:

Negative for:

Ganglioneuromas may be associated with:

Located along distribution of sympathetic nervous system:

Symptoms of ganglioneuroma vary depending on the location of tumor, and include the following:

Patients with ganglioneuroma may also have paraneoplastic syndrome, which may manifest with:

Ganglioneuromas are included in the neuroblastic tumors group, which includes:

Myxoid liposarcoma[49][50][51][52][53][54][55][56][57][58]

Atypical lipomatous tumor/well differentiated liposarcoma and dedifferentiated liposarcoma are associated with:

Myxoid liposarcoma is associated with:

Pleomorphicliposarcoma is associated with:

Well-differentiated liposarcoma:

De-differentiated liposarcoma:

Atypical lipomatous tumor/well differentiated liposarcoma is positive for:


Positive for:

Negative for:

Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor(IMT)[59][60][61][62][63][64][65][66][60][63][67]

Unknown underlying etiology, may be due to inflammatory reaction to:

Mutations such as:

Positive for:

Negative for:

Also known as:

Fibroepithelial polyp/Acrochordon[68][69][70][71][72][73][74][75][76][77][78][79][80][81][82][83][84][85][86][87] Associated with: Positive for:

Negative for:

Associated with:

Also known as:


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