List of human clusters of differentiation
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The following is a list of human clusters of differentiation (or CD) molecules.
|an MHC-like molecule that presents lipid molecules
|a type I transmembrane protein found on thymocytes, T cells, and some natural killer cells that acts as a ligand for CD58 and CD59 and is involved in signal transduction and cell adhesion; expressed in T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia and T-cell lymphoma.
|the signaling component of the T cell receptor (TCR) complex
|a co-receptor for MHC Class II; also a receptor used by HIV to enter T cells
|a type I transmembrane protein found on T cells, thymocytes, and some B cells that is a ligand for CD72 and is involved in cellular activation or adhesion; expressed in B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia and T-cell lymphoma.
|adhesion molecule linking developing thymus-cells to thymus epithelial cells; co-stimulator to mature T cells
|a type I transmembrane protein found on thymocytes, some T cells, monocytes, natural killer cells, and hemopoietic stem cells; expressed in patients with mycosis fungoides, some patients with T-cell acute lymphoblastic lymphoma, and a few patients with acute nonlymphocytic lymphoma.
|a co-receptor for MHC Class I; also found on a subset of myeloid dendritic cells.
|a member of the Tetraspanin superfamily expressed in a variety of cells, including: pre B cells, eosinophils, basophils and platelets.
|a type II transmembrane protein found on pre-B cells, germinal-center B cells, some neutrophils, kidney cells, T-cell precursors, and epithelial cells that acts as a zinc metalloprotease cleaving peptide bonds on the amino side of hydrophobic amino acids; expressed in acute lymphocytic leukemia and follicular-center-cell lymphomas.
|Subunit of LFA-1, a membrane glycoprotein that provides cell-cell adhesion by interaction with ICAM-1
|a type I transmembrane protein found on monocytes, macrophages, neutrophils, and some B cells that induces cellular activation and helps trigger neutrophil respiratory burst; expressed in hairy cell leukemias, acute nonlymphocytic leukemias, and some B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemias. Also one of the defining markers for dendritic cells.
|a zinc metalloproteinase, also known as aminopeptidase N, which is found naturally on myelomonocytic cells from early differentiation through maturity; usually present on acute myeloid leukemia blasts and rarely found in some forms of lymphoma and lymphocytic leukemia
|a membrane protein found on macrophages which binds to bacterial lipopolysaccharide.
|a carbohydrate adhesion molecule (not a protein) that mediates phagocytosis and chemotaxis, found on neutrophils; expressed in patients with Hodgkin disease, some B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemias, acute lymphoblastic leukemias, and most acute nonlymphocytic leukemias. It is also called Lewis x and SSEA-1 (stage specific embryonic antigen 1) and represents a marker for murine pluripotent stem cells, in which it plays an important role in adhesion and migration of the cells in the preimplantation embryo.
|Fc receptor for IgG. Found on NK cells, macrophages, and neutrophils.
|possible role in phagocytosis. Bacteria binding.
|adhesion and signaling in the hematopoietic system.
|B-lymphocyte surface antigen B4
|a type III transmembrane protein found on B cells that forms a calcium channel in the cell wall allowing for the influx of calcium required for cell activation; expressed in B-cell lymphomas, hairy cell leukemia, and B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Important for therapy of those diseases, as an antibody against CD20 exists: Rituximab
|a type I transmembrane protein found on B cells, follicular dendritic cells, pharyngeal and cervical epithelial cells, some thymocytes, and some T cells that plays a role in signal transduction; expressed in hairy cell leukemia, B-cell lymphoma, and some T-cell acute lymphocytic leukemias.
|a type I transmembrane protein found in the cytoplasm of pre-B cells and on the surface of mature B cells that facilitates signal transduction; expressed in patients with hairy cell leukemias and in some with B-cell lymphomas.
|a sugar binding transmembrane protein that specifically binds sialic acid with an immunoglobulin (Ig) domain located at its N-terminus. It is a member of the immunoglobulin superfamily and the SIGLEC family. CD22 functions as an inhibitory receptor for B cell receptor (BCR) signalling.
|a type II transmembrane protein found on mature B cells, monocytes, activated macrophages, eosinophils, platelets, and dendritic cells that enhances capture and processing of antigen complexed with IgE.
|a glycoprotein expressed at the surface of most B lymphocytes and differentiating neuroblasts. This gene encodes a sialoglycoprotein that is expressed on mature granulocytes and in many B cells. The encoded protein is anchored via a glycosyl phosphatidylinositol (GPI) link to the cell surface. An alignment of this gene's sequence finds genomic locations with similarity on chromosomes 3p26, 15q21, 15q22, 20q11.2 and Yq11.1. Whether transcription, and corresponding translation, occurs at each of these other genomic locations needs to be experimentally determined (source: NCBI). Is also known as Heat Stable Antigen (HSA).
|a type I transmembrane protein present on activated T cells, activated B cells, some thymocytes, myeloid precursors, and oligodendrocytes that associates with CD122 to form a heterodimer that can act as a high-affinity receptor for IL-2; expressed in most B-cell neoplasms, some acute nonlymphocytic leukemias, and neuroblastomas.
|Membrane-bound protease. T-cell costimulatory molecule. Cell adhesion molecule
|present on all T-cells, and when matched with the appropriate ligand, labeled B7 which can be either CD80 or CD86, it has costimulatory effect on the T-cell. It is also expressed on Eosinophil granulocytes, especially after tissue infiltration. There it's ligation leads to release of potent neurotoxins, IL-2 and IL-13 as well as IFN-γ
|AKA integrin beta-1 - a cell adhesion molecule.
|a type I transmembrane protein present on activated T and B cells that may play a role in cell activation and/or differentiation; expressed in Hodgkin disease, some T-cell lymphomas, and anaplastic large cell lymphomas.
|PECAM-1, a cell adhesion molecule on platelets and endothelial cells
|a marker of unknown function found on immature myeloid cells, including acute myeloid leukemia blasts and mature monocytes
|stem cell marker, adhesion, found on hematopoietic precursors (found in high concentrations in umbilical cord blood), capillary endothelium, and embryonic fibroblasts
|Complement receptor 1 (C3b/C4b receptor)
|Platelet glycoprotein IV or IIIb (GP IV / GP IIIb)
|A leucocyte restricted tetraspanin expressed primarily in B cells, but also found on T cells, Monocytes and Granulocytes.
|involved in ecto-ADP-ribosyl cyclase and cell activation on many hematopoietic, plasma, and B & T activated cells; marker increases with HIV seroconversion, coexpression with CD8 associated with progression (indicates persistent viral stimulation)
|a costimulatory protein found on antigen presenting cells. CD40 combines with CD154 (CD40L) on T cells to induce antibody isotype switching in B cells.
|The platelet glycoprotein (GPIIb/IIIa) integrin acts as a receptor for fibrinogen and several other extracellular matrix molecules. Its absence causes an extremely rare disorder of the blood known as Glanzmann's thrombasthenia.
|A family of matrix adhesion molecules formed by alternative mRNA splicing, that adhere to hyaluronate, collagen, laminin, and fibronectin. Helps maintain polarization of epithelial cells. Found on bone marrow stromal cells and many other cells.
|leucocyte common antigen, a type I transmembrane protein present on all hemopoietic cells except erythrocytes that assists in cell activation; expressed in lymphomas, B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia, hairy cell leukemia, and acute nonlymphocytic leukemia.
|Very late antigen (VLA) alpha 2 chain; found on platelets and activated B and T cells.
|Very late antigen (VLA) alpha 3 chain; found on nonhematopoietic bone marrow cells. Receptor for collagen, laminin, fibronectin, and thrombospondin.
|A leucocyte restricted tetraspanin expressed by B cells, T cells, dendritic cells, monocytes, NK cells and Granulocytes.
|Intercellular adhesion molecule -1 (ICAM-1): facilitates adhesion between leukocytes to endothelial cells during the immune and inflammatory responses
|Complement Decay-Accelerating Factor (DAF): regulatory factor in one of the three pathways of the immune system complement cascade
|NCAM (neural cell adhesion molecule), a marker for natural killer cells and some T-lymphocytes
|a membrane protein present on many hemopoietic cells and fibroblasts that acts as a ligand for CD2 and may be involved in T-cell function.
|Membrane attack complex inhibition factor (MACIF); MAC-inhibitory protein (MAC-IP); Antigen MEM43; Protectin: Immune system complement cascade regulatory factor
|Integrin beta 3 (Itgb3); Glycoprotein IIIa (GPIIIa): fibrinogen receptor; major role is in platelet aggregation. Defects in Itgb3 are causative for Glanzmann's thrombasthenia.
|Member of the Tetraspanin family expressed in activated platelets, monocytes and macrophages.
|110 kDa highly glycosylated transmembrane protein which is mainly located in lysosomes. Present in macrophages in many human tissues including Kupffer’s cells and macrophages in the red pulp of the spleen, in lung alveoli, in lamina propria of the gut, and in the bone marrow. Used as immunocytochemical marker for staining of monocytes/macrophages.
|An early activtion marker on T cells and NK cells.
|Transferrin receptor, mediates cellular uptake of iron
|Mediator of B-cell - T-cell interactions
|when bound to CD28 on T-cells, can provide the costimulatory effect; also referred to as B7.1, one of the B7 molecules. Causes up-regulation of a high affinity IL-2 receptor allowing T cells to proliferate.
|A tetraspanin expressed in a wide variety of tissues, which plays an important role in B cells as part of the B cell co-receptor complex with CD19, Leu 13 and CD21. Also expressed in T cells, NK cells, Dendritic cells, Monocytes and blood progenitors.
|Member of the tetraspanin family of transmembrane proteins. Broad tissue distribution including B cells, T cells, Granulocytes, Monocytes and CD34+ progenitors.
|a 45 kDa transmembrane glycoprotein of the Ig superfamily. Expressed on cultured dendritic cells, interdigitating, follicular, and circulating dendritic cells as well as some proliferating lymphocyte of all human cell lines. Functionally unclear, but can serve as a useful marker for mature human blood dendritic cells.
|when bound to CD28 on T-cells, can provide the costimulatory effect; also referred to as B7.2, one of the B7 molecules. Causes up-regulation of a high affinity IL-2 receptor allowing T cells to proliferate.
|also referred to as the urokinase type plasminogen activator receptor, provides a binding point for urokinase type plasminogen activator
|FcalphaRI - receptor for IgA
|Thy-1 Thymus cell antigen.
|Low density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor-related protein 1 (LRP1) (also known as α2-macroglobulin receptor), a major endocytotic receptor with over 35 known ligands including amyloid precursor protein (APP), ApoE, and many proteins involved with protease regulation
|Fas Receptor- receptor for Fas ligand, an extrinsic apoptotic signal
|a type I transmembrane protein present on intestinal intraepithelial lymphocytes, some circulating leukocytes, and some T cells that facilitates adhesion to epithelia; expressed in hairy cell leukemia and some B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemias.
|Endoglin, a regulatory component of the TGF-beta receptor-cell complex. Mediates cellular response to TGFbeta.
|VCAM-1; Alpha 4 beta 1 ligand. Adhesion molecule involved in white blood cell migration.
|r150, Gov alloantigen, an accessory receptor of the TGF-beta signaling pathway. Mediates cellular response to TGFbeta. Presents Gov alloantigens and ABH blood antigens.
|c-kit, the receptor for Stem Cell Factor, a glycoprotein that regulates cellular differentiation, particularly in hematopoiesis
|a receptor for Tumour Necrosis Factor, an inflammatory cytokine
|the IL-7 receptor alpha chain
|a hematopoietic and CNS stem cell marker. A 5 transmembrane domain protein, with no known function. Also known as AC133.
|Also known as OX40; A T cell secondary costimulatory molecule which enances proliferation, cytokine production and survival.
|Also known as fms-like tyrosine kinase receptor-3 (Flt3) or fetal liver kinase-2 (Flk2); A cytokine receptor for Flt3 ligand (Flt3L) important in early hematopoiesis.
|a plasma cell-surface glycoprotein, known as syndecan-1. Syndecan functions as the alpha receptor for collagen, fibronectin and thrombospondin.
|Thrombomodulin or BDCA-3, an integral membrane protein. On endothelial cells, it is involved in anticoagulation. It also occurs, with unknown function, on a very rare subtype of dendritic cells.
|Tissue factor, a major initiator of blood-clotting
|VE-Cadherin, a calcium-dependent adhesion molecule at intercellular junctions, found mainly in the vascular endothelium. Recent research indicates that CD144 may be present on some leucocytes as well.
|Neurothelin. An extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer.
|Tetraspanin with a wide tissue distribution, including platelets, Megakaryocytes, Granulocytes and erythroleukemia.
|Also called Cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen-4 (CTLA-4). Expressed in CD4+ T Lymphocytes but also found in some B Lymphocytes. Binds to CD80 and CD86 receptors with a higher affinity than CD28, and inhibits T cell activation.
|Plays the role of a costimulatory molecule and induces the activation of an APC in association with T cell receptor stimulation by MHC molecules on the APC.
|M130; HbSR; RM3/1 antigen. A glycoprotein endocytic scavenger receptor for haptoglobin-hemoglobin complexes. Found specifically on monocytes/macrophages and some dendritic cells. Involved in anti-iflammatory processes. Soluble form shed upon Toll-like receptor activation.
|activated leukocyte cell adhesion molecule (ALCAM).
|receptor for hyaluronan-mediated motility (RHAMM).
|CXCR4, Stromal Derived Factor 1 (SDF1). Receptor for the CXC chemokine SDF1. A receptor involved in mesenchymal stem cell homing and migration.
|CXCR6, a G-protein-coupled receptor for the chemokine CXCL16
|DC-SIGN, C-type lectin receptor found on dendritic cell subsets
|Tie2, the receptor for angiopoietins, a family of angiogenic factors
|Glycophorin, a protein on blood cells
|is the p75 Nerve Growth factor receptor (NGFR)
|BDCA-2, a type II transmembrane C-type lectin which is involved in endocytosis of antigens for processing in plasmacytoid dendritic cells. Activation decreases type I interferon production.
|Neuropilin-1 (NP-1) or BDCA-4, has a wide range of functions. On neurons, it is a receptor for axon growth guidance class-3 semaphorins SEMA3A and plexin-1, on endothelial and some tumor cells it is a VEGF165 receptor, and on plasmacytoid dendritic cells it has a similar role to CD303 but does not decrease interferon production upon activation.
- Bennett JS. Structure and function of the platelet integrin alphaIIbbeta3. J Clin Invest 2005; 115:3363-9.