Acute myocardial infarction

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List of terms related to Acute myocardial infarction

Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1]

Overview

AMI (Acute myocardial infarction) can refer to:

Types of AMI

This page outlines the terminology and types of myocardial infarction according to the Fourth Universal Definition of Myocardial Infarction endorsed by the ESC/ACC/AHA/WHF (Eur Heart J. 2019 Jan 14;40(3):237-269. doi: 10.1093/eurheartj/ehy462).[1]

  • Type 1
    • Caused by atherothrombotic coronary artery disease and usually precipitated by atherosclerotic plaque disruption (plaque rupture or plaque erosion).
  • Type 2
    • Caused by an imbalance between myocardial oxygen supply and demand.
    • Unrelated to acute coronary atherothrombosis.
    • Attributable to:
      • Reduced myocardial perfusion:
        • Fixed coronary atherosclerosis without plaque rupture.
        • Coronary artery spasm.
        • Coronary microvascular dysfunction (including endothelial dysfunction, smooth muscle cell dysfunction, and dysregulation of sympathetic innervation).
        • Coronary embolism.
        • Coronary artery dissection with or without intramural hematoma.
      • Reduced oxygen supply:
        • Severe bradyarrhythmia.
        • Respiratory failure with severe hypoxemia.
        • Severe anemia.
        • Hypotension/shock.
      • Increased myocardial oxygen demand:
        • Sustained tachyarrhythmia.
        • Severe hypertension with or without left ventricular hypertrophy.
  • Type 3
    • Patients who suffer cardiac death, with symptoms suggestive of myocardial ischemia accompanied by presumed new ischemic ECG changes or ventricular fibrillation, but die before blood samples for biomarkers can be obtained, or before increases in cardiac biomarkers can be identified, or MI is detected by autopsy examination.
  • Type 4a
    • Related to percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), with increased cTn values >5 times the 99th percentile URL and new myocardial ischemia evidenced by ECG, imaging or complications leading to reduced coronary blood flow.
  • Type 4b
    • Stent/scaffold thrombosis.
    • Classified by elapsed time since stent/scaffold implantation:
      • Acute: 0–24 hours.
      • Subacute: >24 hours to 30 days.
      • Late: > 30 days to 1 year.
      • Very late: >1 year.
  • Type 4c
    • In-stent restenosis or restenosis following balloon angioplasty in the infarct territory.
    • No other culprit lesion or thrombus can be identified.
  • Type 5
    • Related to coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG), with increased cTn values >10 times 99th percentile URL and new myocardial ischemia or new loss of myocardial viability.

References

  1. Thygesen, Kristian; Alpert, Joseph S; Jaffe, Allan S; Chaitman, Bernard R; Bax, Jeroen J; Morrow, David A; White, Harvey D; Thygesen, Kristian; Alpert, Joseph S; Jaffe, Allan S; Chaitman, Bernard R; Bax, Jeroen J; Morrow, David A; White, Harvey D; Mickley, Hans; Crea, Filippo; Van de Werf, Frans; Bucciarelli-Ducci, Chiara; Katus, Hugo A; Pinto, Fausto J; Antman, Elliott M; Hamm, Christian W; De Caterina, Raffaele; Januzzi, James L; Apple, Fred S; Alonso Garcia, Maria Angeles; Underwood, S Richard; Canty, John M; Lyon, Alexander R; Devereaux, P J; Zamorano, Jose Luis; Lindahl, Bertil; Weintraub, William S; Newby, L Kristin; Virmani, Renu; Vranckx, Pascal; Cutlip, Don; Gibbons, Raymond J; Smith, Sidney C; Atar, Dan; Luepker, Russell V; Robertson, Rose Marie; Bonow, Robert O; Steg, P Gabriel; O’Gara, Patrick T; Fox, Keith A A; Hasdai, David; Aboyans, Victor; Achenbach, Stephan; Agewall, Stefan; Alexander, Thomas; Avezum, Alvaro; Barbato, Emanuele; Bassand, Jean-Pierre; Bates, Eric; Bittl, John A; Breithardt, Güenter; Bueno, Héctor; Bugiardini, Raffaele; Cohen, Mauricio G; Dangas, George; de Lemos, James A; Delgado, Victoria; Filippatos, Gerasimos; Fry, Edward; Granger, Christopher B; Halvorsen, Sigrun; Hlatky, Mark A; Ibanez, Borja; James, Stefan; Kastrati, Adnan; Leclercq, Christophe; Mahaffey, Kenneth W; Mehta, Laxmi; Müller, Christian; Patrono, Carlo; Piepoli, Massimo Francesco; Piñeiro, Daniel; Roffi, Marco; Rubboli, Andrea; Sharma, Samin; Simpson, Iain A; Tendera, Michael; Valgimigli, Marco; van der Wal, Allard C; Windecker, Stephan; Chettibi, Mohamed; Hayrapetyan, Hamlet; Roithinger, Franz Xaver; Aliyev, Farid; Sujayeva, Volha; Claeys, Marc J; Smajić, Elnur; Kala, Petr; Iversen, Kasper Karmak; El Hefny, Ehab; Marandi, Toomas; Porela, Pekka; Antov, Slobodan; Gilard, Martine; Blankenberg, Stefan; Davlouros, Periklis; Gudnason, Thorarinn; Alcalai, Ronny; Colivicchi, Furio; Elezi, Shpend; Baitova, Gulmira; Zakke, Ilja; Gustiene, Olivija; Beissel, Jean; Dingli, Philip; Grosu, Aurel; Damman, Peter; Juliebø, Vibeke; Legutko, Jacek; Morais, Joäo; Tatu-Chitoiu, Gabriel; Yakovlev, Alexey; Zavatta, Marco; Nedeljkovic, Milan; Radsel, Peter; Sionis, Alessandro; Jemberg, Tomas; Müller, Christian; Abid, Leila; Abaci, Adnan; Parkhomenko, Alexandr; Corbett, Simon (2019). "Fourth universal definition of myocardial infarction (2018)". European Heart Journal. 40 (3): 237–269. doi:10.1093/eurheartj/ehy462. ISSN 0195-668X.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>

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