C-Jun N-terminal kinases

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Symbol MAPK8
Alt. Symbols PRKM8
Entrez 5599
HUGO 6881
OMIM 601158
RefSeq NM_002750
UniProt P45983
Other data
Locus Chr. 10 q11.2
Symbol MAPK9
Alt. Symbols PRKM9
Entrez 5601
HUGO 6886
OMIM 602896
RefSeq NM_002752
UniProt P45984
Other data
Locus Chr. 5 q35
mitogen-activated protein kinase 10
Symbol MAPK10
Alt. Symbols PRKM10
Entrez 5602
HUGO 6872
OMIM 602897
RefSeq NM_002753
UniProt P53779
Other data
Locus Chr. 4 q22-q23


C-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNKs), originally identified as kinases that bind and phosphosphorylate c-Jun on Ser63 and Ser73 within its transcriptional activation domain, are mitogen-activated protein kinases which are responsive to stress stimuli, such as cytokines, ultraviolet irradiation, heat shock, and osmotic shock, and are involved in T cell differentiation and apoptosis.


The c-Jun N-terminal kinases consist of ten isoforms deriving from the three genes JNK1, JNK2 and JNK3[1]:

  • JNK1 and JNK2 are ubiquitously distributed.
  • By contrast, JNK3 is found mainly in neuronal tissue and testes.


JNK1 is involved in apoptosis, neurodegeneration, cell differentiation and proliferation, inflammatory conditions and cytokine production mediated by AP-1 (Activation Protein 1) such as RANTES, IL-8 and GM-CSF. [2]

Recently, JNK1 has been found to regulate Jun protein turnover by phosphorylation and activation of the ubiquitin ligase Itch.

JNKs can associate with scaffold proteins JNK Interacting Proteins as well as their upstream kinases JNKK1 and JNKK2 following their activation.

External links


  1. Waetzig V, Herdegen T (2005). "Context-specific inhibition of JNKs: overcoming the dilemma of protection and damage". Br. J. Pharmacol. 26 (9): 455–61. PMID 16054242. 
  2. Oltmanns U, Issa R, Sukkar M, John M, Chung K (2003). "Role of c-jun N-terminal kinase in the induced release of GM-CSF, RANTES and IL-8 from human airway smooth muscle cells" (PDF). Br. J. Pharmacol. 139 (6): 1228–34. PMID 12871843.