C-Jun N-terminal kinases
|Locus||Chr. 10 q11.2|
|Locus||Chr. 5 q35|
mitogen-activated protein kinase 10
|Locus||Chr. 4 q22-q23|
C-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNKs), originally identified as kinases that bind and phosphosphorylate c-Jun on Ser63 and Ser73 within its transcriptional activation domain, are mitogen-activated protein kinases which are responsive to stress stimuli, such as cytokines, ultraviolet irradiation, heat shock, and osmotic shock, and are involved in T cell differentiation and apoptosis.
- JNK1 and JNK2 are ubiquitously distributed.
- By contrast, JNK3 is found mainly in neuronal tissue and testes.
JNK1 is involved in apoptosis, neurodegeneration, cell differentiation and proliferation, inflammatory conditions and cytokine production mediated by AP-1 (Activation Protein 1) such as RANTES, IL-8 and GM-CSF. 
- Waetzig V, Herdegen T (2005). "Context-specific inhibition of JNKs: overcoming the dilemma of protection and damage". Br. J. Pharmacol. 26 (9): 455–61. PMID 16054242.
- Oltmanns U, Issa R, Sukkar M, John M, Chung K (2003). "Role of c-jun N-terminal kinase in the induced release of GM-CSF, RANTES and IL-8 from human airway smooth muscle cells" (PDF). Br. J. Pharmacol. 139 (6): 1228–34. PMID 12871843.