C-Jun N-terminal kinases
|Locus||Chr. 10 q11.2|
|Locus||Chr. 5 q35|
mitogen-activated protein kinase 10
|Locus||Chr. 4 q22-q23|
C-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNKs), originally identified as kinases that bind and phosphosphorylate c-Jun on Ser63 and Ser73 within its transcriptional activation domain, are mitogen-activated protein kinases which are responsive to stress stimuli, such as cytokines, ultraviolet irradiation, heat shock, and osmotic shock, and are involved in T cell differentiation and apoptosis.
- JNK1 and JNK2 are ubiquitously distributed.
- By contrast, JNK3 is found mainly in neuronal tissue and testes.
JNK1 is involved in apoptosis, neurodegeneration, cell differentiation and proliferation, inflammatory conditions and cytokine production mediated by AP-1 (Activation Protein 1) such as RANTES, IL-8 and GM-CSF. 
- ↑ Waetzig V, Herdegen T (2005). "Context-specific inhibition of JNKs: overcoming the dilemma of protection and damage". Br. J. Pharmacol 26 (9): 455-61. PMID 16054242.
- ↑ Oltmanns U, Issa R, Sukkar M, John M, Chung K (2003). "Role of c-jun N-terminal kinase in the induced release of GM-CSF, RANTES and IL-8 from human airway smooth muscle cells". Br. J. Pharmacol. 139 (6): 1228-34. PMID 12871843.
Kinases: Serine/threonine-specific protein kinases (primarily EC 2.7.11)
|2.7.11||Pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase - Protein kinase A - Protein kinase G - Protein kinase C (Protein kinase Mζ) - Rhodopsin - Beta adrenergic receptor - G-protein coupled receptor kinases - Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent - Myosin light-chain) - Phosphorylase - Cyclin-dependent - Mitogen-activated (Extracellular signal-regulated, C-Jun N-terminal (MAPK8, MAPK9), P38 mitogen-activated protein) - MAP3K - GSK-3 - AMP-activated|
|2.7.12||MAP2K (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7)|
|22.214.171.124, or unknown||Anti-Mullerian hormone receptor - Ataxia telangiectasia mutated - Aurora (A, B) - Mammalian target of rapamycin - Bone morphogenetic protein receptors (1, 2) - CDKL5 - c-Raf - EIF-2 - Ribosomal s6 - Protein kinase B - PDK1|
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