Activating transcription factor 2

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Activating transcription factor 2
PBB Protein ATF2 image.jpg
PDB rendering based on 1bhi.
Symbol(s) ATF2; CREB2; CRE-BP1; HB16; MGC111558; TREB7
External IDs OMIM: 123811 MGI109349 Homologene31061
RNA expression pattern

PBB GE ATF2 205446 s at tn.png

PBB GE ATF2 212984 at tn.png

More reference expression data

Human Mouse
Entrez 1386 11909
Ensembl ENSG00000115966 ENSMUSG00000027104
Uniprot P15336 P70299
Refseq NM_001880 (mRNA)
NP_001871 (protein)
NM_001025093 (mRNA)
NP_001020264 (protein)
Location Chr 2: 175.65 - 175.74 Mb Chr 2: 73.62 - 73.66 Mb
Pubmed search [1] [2]


Activating transcription factor 2, also known as ATF2, is a human gene.[1]

This gene encodes a transcription factor that is a member of the leucine zipper family of DNA binding proteins. This protein binds to the cAMP-responsive element (CRE), an octameric palindrome. The protein forms a homodimer or heterodimer with c-Jun and stimulates CRE-dependent transcription. The protein is also a histone acetyltransferase (HAT) that specifically acetylates histones H2B and H4 in vitro; thus it may represent a class of sequence-specific factors that activate transcription by direct effects on chromatin components. Additional transcript variants have been identified but their biological validity has not been determined.[1]

The gene atf2 is located at human chromosome 2q32[2]. The protein ATF-2 has 505 amino acids. Studies in mice indicate a role for ATF-2 in the development of nervous system and the skeleton[3]. ATF-2 is normaly activated in response to signals that converge on stress-activated protein kinases p38 and JNK[4]. Several studies implicate abnormal activation of ATF-2 in growth and progression of mammalian skin tumors[5][6]. ATF-2 may mediate oncogenesis caused by mutant Ras protein[7] and regulate maintenance of the aggressive cancer phenotype of some types of epithelial cells.

See also


  1. 1.0 1.1 "Entrez Gene: ATF2 activating transcription factor 2". 
  2. Ozawa K, Sudo T, Soeda E, Yoshida MC, Ishii S (1991). "Assignment of the human CREB2 (CRE-BP1) gene to 2q32". Genomics. 10 (4): 1103–4. PMID 1833307. 
  3. Reimold AM, Grusby MJ, Kosaras B; et al. (1996). "Chondrodysplasia and neurological abnormalities in ATF-2-deficient mice". Nature. 379 (6562): 262–5. PMID 8538792. doi:10.1038/379262a0. 
  4. Gupta S, Campbell D, Dérijard B, Davis RJ (1995). "Transcription factor ATF2 regulation by the JNK signal transduction pathway". Science. 267 (5196): 389–93. PMID 7824938. doi:0.1126/science.7824938 Check |doi= value (help). 
  5. Leslie MC, Bar-Eli M (2005). "Regulation of gene expression in melanoma: new approaches for treatment". J. Cell. Biochem. 94 (1): 25–38. PMID 15523674. doi:10.1002/jcb.20296. 
  6. Papassava P, Gorgoulis VG, Papaevangeliou D, Vlahopoulos S, van Dam H, Zoumpourlis V (2004). "Overexpression of activating transcription factor-2 is required for tumor growth and progression in mouse skin tumors". Cancer Res. 64 (23): 8573–84. PMID 15574764. doi:10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-03-0955. 
  7. Vlahopoulos SA, Logotheti S, Mikas D, Giarika A, Gorgoulis V, Zoumpourlis V (2008 March 17). "The role of ATF-2 in oncogenesis". Bioessays. 30 (4): 314–327. PMID 18348191. doi:10.1002/bies.20734.  Check date values in: |date= (help)

Further reading

  • Denys H, Desmet R, Stragier M; et al. (1978). "Cystitis emphysematosa.". Acta urologica Belgica. 45 (4): 327–31. PMID 602896. 
  • Kim SJ, Wagner S, Liu F; et al. (1992). "Retinoblastoma gene product activates expression of the human TGF-beta 2 gene through transcription factor ATF-2.". Nature. 358 (6384): 331–4. PMID 1641004. doi:10.1038/358331a0. 
  • Hai T, Curran T (1991). "Cross-family dimerization of transcription factors Fos/Jun and ATF/CREB alters DNA binding specificity.". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 88 (9): 3720–4. PMID 1827203. 
  • Hoeffler JP, Lustbader JW, Chen CY (1991). "Identification of multiple nuclear factors that interact with cyclic adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate response element-binding protein and activating transcription factor-2 by protein-protein interactions.". Mol. Endocrinol. 5 (2): 256–66. PMID 1828107. 
  • Ozawa K, Sudo T, Soeda E; et al. (1991). "Assignment of the human CREB2 (CRE-BP1) gene to 2q32.". Genomics. 10 (4): 1103–4. PMID 1833307. 
  • Diep A, Li C, Klisak I; et al. (1992). "Assignment of the gene for cyclic AMP-response element binding protein 2 (CREB2) to human chromosome 2q24.1-q32.". Genomics. 11 (4): 1161–3. PMID 1838349. 
  • Kara CJ, Liou HC, Ivashkiv LB, Glimcher LH (1990). "A cDNA for a human cyclic AMP response element-binding protein which is distinct from CREB and expressed preferentially in brain.". Mol. Cell. Biol. 10 (4): 1347–57. PMID 2320002. 
  • Gonzalez GA, Yamamoto KK, Fischer WH; et al. (1989). "A cluster of phosphorylation sites on the cyclic AMP-regulated nuclear factor CREB predicted by its sequence.". Nature. 337 (6209): 749–52. PMID 2521922. doi:10.1038/337749a0. 
  • Maekawa T, Sakura H, Kanei-Ishii C; et al. (1989). "Leucine zipper structure of the protein CRE-BP1 binding to the cyclic AMP response element in brain.". EMBO J. 8 (7): 2023–8. PMID 2529117. 
  • Raingeaud J, Gupta S, Rogers JS; et al. (1995). "Pro-inflammatory cytokines and environmental stress cause p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase activation by dual phosphorylation on tyrosine and threonine.". J. Biol. Chem. 270 (13): 7420–6. PMID 7535770. 
  • Livingstone C, Patel G, Jones N (1995). "ATF-2 contains a phosphorylation-dependent transcriptional activation domain.". EMBO J. 14 (8): 1785–97. PMID 7737129. 
  • van Dam H, Wilhelm D, Herr I; et al. (1995). "ATF-2 is preferentially activated by stress-activated protein kinases to mediate c-jun induction in response to genotoxic agents.". EMBO J. 14 (8): 1798–811. PMID 7737130. 
  • Zhou Q, Gedrich RW, Engel DA (1995). "Transcriptional repression of the c-fos gene by YY1 is mediated by a direct interaction with ATF/CREB.". J. Virol. 69 (7): 4323–30. PMID 7769693. 
  • Newell CL, Deisseroth AB, Lopez-Berestein G (1994). "Interaction of nuclear proteins with an AP-1/CRE-like promoter sequence in the human TNF-alpha gene.". J. Leukoc. Biol. 56 (1): 27–35. PMID 8027667. 
  • Nomura N, Zu YL, Maekawa T; et al. (1993). "Isolation and characterization of a novel member of the gene family encoding the cAMP response element-binding protein CRE-BP1.". J. Biol. Chem. 268 (6): 4259–66. PMID 8440710. 
  • Martin ML, Lieberman PM, Curran T (1996). "Fos-Jun dimerization promotes interaction of the basic region with TFIIE-34 and TFIIF.". Mol. Cell. Biol. 16 (5): 2110–8. PMID 8628277. 
  • Yang L, Lanier ER, Kraig E (1997). "Identification of a novel, spliced variant of CREB that is preferentially expressed in the thymus.". J. Immunol. 158 (6): 2522–5. PMID 9058782. 
  • Shuman JD, Cheong J, Coligan JE (1997). "ATF-2 and C/EBPalpha can form a heterodimeric DNA binding complex in vitro. Functional implications for transcriptional regulation.". J. Biol. Chem. 272 (19): 12793–800. PMID 9139739. 
  • Fukunaga R, Hunter T (1997). "MNK1, a new MAP kinase-activated protein kinase, isolated by a novel expression screening method for identifying protein kinase substrates.". EMBO J. 16 (8): 1921–33. PMID 9155018. doi:10.1093/emboj/16.8.1921. 
  • Kumar S, McDonnell PC, Gum RJ; et al. (1997). "Novel homologues of CSBP/p38 MAP kinase: activation, substrate specificity and sensitivity to inhibition by pyridinyl imidazoles.". Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 235 (3): 533–8. PMID 9207191. doi:10.1006/bbrc.1997.6849.