SMAD (protein)

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SMAD's (Small Mothers Against Decapentaplegic) are a class of proteins that modulate the activity of transforming growth factor beta ligands.

The SMAD's form complexes, often with other SMAD's, enter the nucleus and serve as transcription factors.

Classes

There are three classes of SMAD:

Nomenclature

The SMAD proteins are homologs of both the drosophila protein, mothers against decapentaplegic (MAD) and the C. elegans protein SMA. The name is a combination of the two.

During Drosophila research, it was found that a mutation in the gene, MAD, in the mother, repressed the gene, decapentaplegic, in the embryo. The phrase "Mothers against" was added since mothers often form organizations opposing various issues eg. Mothers Against Drunk Driving or (MADD).

References

(1) Heldin, C.H. et al. (1997) Nature 390, 465–471.

(2) Attisano, L. and Wrana, J.L. (1998) Curr. Opin. Cell Biol. 6, 597-641.

(3) Derynck, R. et al. (1998) Cell 95, 737–740.

(4) Massague, J. (1998) Annu. Rev. Biochem. 67, 753–791.

(5) Whitman, M. et al. (1998) Genes Dev. 12, 2445–2462.

(6) Wrana, J. (2000) Science 23, 1–9.

(7) Attisano, L. and Wrana, J. (2002) Science 296, 1646-1647.

External links


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