PAX7

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Paired box protein Pax-7 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the PAX7 gene.[1][2][3]

Function

Pax-7 plays a role in neural crest development and gastrulation, and it is an important factor in the expression of neural crest markers such as Slug, Sox9, Sox10 and HNK-1.[4] PAX7 is expressed in the palatal shelf of the maxilla, Meckel's cartilage, mesencephalon, nasal cavity, nasal epithelium, nasal capsule and pons.

Pax7 is a transcription factor that plays a role in myogenesis through regulation of muscle precursor cells proliferation. It can bind to DNA as an heterodimer with PAX3. Also interacts with PAXBP1; the interaction links PAX7 to a WDR5-containing histone methyltransferase complex By similarity. Interacts with DAXX too.[5]

PAX7 functions as a marker for a rare subset of spermatogonial stem cells, specifically a sub set of Asingle spermatogonia.[6] These PAX7+ spermatogonia are rare in adult testis but are much more prevalent in newborns, making up 28% of germ cells in neonate testis.[6] Unlike PAX7+ muscle satellite cells, PAX7+ spermatogonia rapidly proliferate and are not quiescent.[6][7] PAX7+ spermatogonia are able to give rise to all stages of spermatogenesis and produce motile sperm.[6] However, PAX7 is not required for spermatogenesis, as mice without PAX7+ spermatogonia show no deficits in fertility.[6]

PAX7 may also function in the recovery in spermatogenesis. Unlike other spermatogonia, PAX7+ spermatogonia are resistant to radiation and chemotherapy.[6] The surviving PAX7+ spermatogonia are able to increase in number following these therapies and differentiate into the other forms of spermatogonia that did not survive.[6] Additionally, mice lacking PAX7 had delayed recovery of spermatogenesis following exposure to busulfan when compared to control mice.[6]

Clinical significance

Pax proteins play critical roles during fetal development and cancer growth. The specific function of the paired box gene 7 is unknown but speculated to involve tumor suppression since fusion of this gene with a forkhead domain family member has been associated with alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma. Alternative splicing in this gene has produced two known products but the biological significance of the variants is unknown.[3] Animal studies show that mutant mice have malformation of maxilla and the nose.[8]

See also

References

  1. Stapleton P, Weith A, Urbánek P, Kozmik Z, Busslinger M (April 1993). "Chromosomal localization of seven PAX genes and cloning of a novel family member, PAX-9". Nature Genetics. 3 (4): 292–8. doi:10.1038/ng0493-292. PMID 7981748.
  2. Pilz AJ, Povey S, Gruss P, Abbott CM (March 1993). "Mapping of the human homologs of the murine paired-box-containing genes". Mammalian Genome. 4 (2): 78–82. doi:10.1007/BF00290430. PMID 8431641.
  3. 3.0 3.1 "Entrez Gene: PAX7 paired box gene 7".
  4. Basch ML, Bronner-Fraser M, García-Castro MI (May 2006). "Specification of the neural crest occurs during gastrulation and requires Pax7". Nature. 441 (7090): 218–22. doi:10.1038/nature04684. PMID 16688176.
  5. https://www.uniprot.org/uniprot/P23759
  6. 6.0 6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4 6.5 6.6 6.7 Aloisio, Gina M.; Nakada, Yuji; Saatcioglu, Hatice D.; Peña, Christopher G.; Baker, Michael D.; Tarnawa, Edward D.; Mukherjee, Jishnu; Manjunath, Hema; Bugde, Abhijit (2014-09-02). "PAX7 expression defines germline stem cells in the adult testis". The Journal of Clinical Investigation. 124 (9): 3929–3944. doi:10.1172/JCI75943. ISSN 0021-9738. PMC 4153705. PMID 25133429.
  7. Kumar, T. Rajendra (2014-10-01). "The quest for male germline stem cell markers: PAX7 gets ID'd". The Journal of Clinical Investigation. 124 (10): 4219–4222. doi:10.1172/JCI77926. ISSN 0021-9738. PMC 4191048. PMID 25157826.
  8. Mansouri A, Stoykova A, Torres M, Gruss P (March 1996). "Dysgenesis of cephalic neural crest derivatives in Pax7-/- mutant mice". Development. 122 (3): 831–8. PMID 8631261.

Further reading

External links

This article incorporates text from the United States National Library of Medicine, which is in the public domain.



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