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Mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 2
PDB rendering based on 1s9i.
Available structures: 1s9i
Symbol(s) MAP2K2; MAPKK2; MEK2; MKK2; PRKMK2
External IDs OMIM: 601263 MGI1346867 Homologene48591
RNA expression pattern



More reference expression data

Human Mouse
Entrez 5605 26396
Ensembl ENSG00000126934 ENSMUSG00000035027
Uniprot P36507 Q3USU3
Refseq NM_030662 (mRNA)
NP_109587 (protein)
XM_987766 (mRNA)
XP_992860 (protein)
Location Chr 19: 4.04 - 4.08 Mb Chr 10: 80.51 - 80.53 Mb
Pubmed search [1] [2]

Mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 2, also known as MAP2K2, is a human gene.

The protein encoded by this gene is a dual specificity protein kinase that belongs to the MAP kinase kinase family. This kinase is known to play a critical role in mitogen growth factor signal transduction. It phosphorylates and thus activates MAPK1/ERK2 and MAPK2/ERK3. The activation of this kinase itself is dependent on the Ser/Thr phosphorylation by MAP kinase kinase kinases. The inhibition or degradation of this kinase is found to be involved in the pathogenesis of Yersinia and anthrax.[1]


Further reading

  • Joseph AM, Kumar M, Mitra D (2005). "Nef: "necessary and enforcing factor" in HIV infection.". Curr. HIV Res. 3 (1): 87–94. PMID 15638726. 
  • Stove V, Verhasselt B (2006). "Modelling thymic HIV-1 Nef effects.". Curr. HIV Res. 4 (1): 57–64. PMID 16454711. 
  • Charest DL, Mordret G, Harder KW; et al. (1993). "Molecular cloning, expression, and characterization of the human mitogen-activated protein kinase p44erk1.". Mol. Cell. Biol. 13 (8): 4679–90. PMID 7687743. 
  • Dérijard B, Raingeaud J, Barrett T; et al. (1995). "Independent human MAP-kinase signal transduction pathways defined by MEK and MKK isoforms.". Science. 267 (5198): 682–5. PMID 7839144. 
  • Alessi DR, Saito Y, Campbell DG; et al. (1994). "Identification of the sites in MAP kinase kinase-1 phosphorylated by p74raf-1.". EMBO J. 13 (7): 1610–9. PMID 8157000. 
  • Zheng CF, Guan KL (1993). "Properties of MEKs, the kinases that phosphorylate and activate the extracellular signal-regulated kinases.". J. Biol. Chem. 268 (32): 23933–9. PMID 8226933. 
  • Zheng CF, Guan KL (1993). "Cloning and characterization of two distinct human extracellular signal-regulated kinase activator kinases, MEK1 and MEK2.". J. Biol. Chem. 268 (15): 11435–9. PMID 8388392. 
  • Wu J, Harrison JK, Dent P; et al. (1993). "Identification and characterization of a new mammalian mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase, MKK2.". Mol. Cell. Biol. 13 (8): 4539–48. PMID 8393135. 
  • Moriguchi T, Gotoh Y, Nishida E (1996). "Activation of two isoforms of mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase in response to epidermal growth factor and nerve growth factor.". Eur. J. Biochem. 234 (1): 32–8. PMID 8529659. 
  • Butch ER, Guan KL (1996). "Characterization of ERK1 activation site mutants and the effect on recognition by MEK1 and MEK2.". J. Biol. Chem. 271 (8): 4230–5. PMID 8626767. 
  • Papin C, Denouel A, Calothy G, Eychène A (1996). "Identification of signalling proteins interacting with B-Raf in the yeast two-hybrid system.". Oncogene. 12 (10): 2213–21. PMID 8668348. 
  • Downey GP, Butler JR, Brumell J; et al. (1996). "Chemotactic peptide-induced activation of MEK-2, the predominant isoform in human neutrophils. Inhibition by wortmannin.". J. Biol. Chem. 271 (35): 21005–1011. PMID 8702863. 
  • Khoo S, Cobb MH (1997). "Activation of mitogen-activating protein kinase by glucose is not required for insulin secretion.". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 94 (11): 5599–604. PMID 9159118. 
  • Li CJ, Ueda Y, Shi B; et al. (1997). "Tat protein induces self-perpetuating permissivity for productive HIV-1 infection.". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 94 (15): 8116–20. PMID 9223324. 
  • Menegon A, Leoni C, Benfenati F, Valtorta F (1997). "Tat protein from HIV-1 activates MAP kinase in granular neurons and glial cells from rat cerebellum.". Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 238 (3): 800–5. PMID 9325171. doi:10.1006/bbrc.1997.7393. 
  • Denouel-Galy A, Douville EM, Warne PH; et al. (1998). "Murine Ksr interacts with MEK and inhibits Ras-induced transformation.". Curr. Biol. 8 (1): 46–55. PMID 9427625. 
  • Gibellini D, Bassini A, Pierpaoli S; et al. (1998). "Extracellular HIV-1 Tat protein induces the rapid Ser133 phosphorylation and activation of CREB transcription factor in both Jurkat lymphoblastoid T cells and primary peripheral blood mononuclear cells.". J. Immunol. 160 (8): 3891–8. PMID 9558095. 
  • Duesbery NS, Webb CP, Leppla SH; et al. (1998). "Proteolytic inactivation of MAP-kinase-kinase by anthrax lethal factor.". Science. 280 (5364): 734–7. PMID 9563949. 
  • Ganju RK, Munshi N, Nair BC; et al. (1998). "Human immunodeficiency virus tat modulates the Flk-1/KDR receptor, mitogen-activated protein kinases, and components of focal adhesion in Kaposi's sarcoma cells.". J. Virol. 72 (7): 6131–7. PMID 9621077. 
  • Tanimura S, Chatani Y, Hoshino R; et al. (1998). "Activation of the 41/43 kDa mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathway is required for hepatocyte growth factor-induced cell scattering.". Oncogene. 17 (1): 57–65. PMID 9671314. doi:10.1038/sj.onc.1201905.