Rhodopsin kinase

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Template:Infobox protein Rhodopsin kinase (EC, cone opsin kinase, G-protein-coupled receptor kinase 1, GPCR kinase 1, GRK1, GRK7, opsin kinase, opsin kinase (phosphorylating), rhodopsin kinase (phosphorylating), RK, STK14) is a serine/threonine-specific protein kinase involved in phototransduction.[1][2][3][4][5][6][7][8][9] This enzyme catalyses the following chemical reaction

ATP + rhodopsin ADP + phosphorhodopsin

Mutations in rhodopsin kinase are associated with a form of night blindness called Oguchi disease.[10]

More on Rhodopsin Kinase

Rhodopsin Kinase is involved in mammalian rod cells specifically with photo transduction and belongs to the family of G coupled-protein receptor kinases. This kinase, referred to as GRK1 is post-translationally modified by farnesylation and α-carboxyl methylation[11][12] GRK1 phosphorylates rhodopsin, resulting in partial photo-activation of rhodopsin, thus activating the dim flash response.[13] Dim flash response is activated in dim light and its ideal to de-activate the rod cell photoreceptor or rhodopsin over time.[14] GRK1 AND GRK7Template:Disambiguation needed exist and are isoforms of rhodopsin kinase. Studies have proven that in mice rod cells, GRK1 has competition with arrestin for the binding site of rhodopsin.[15] Arrestin-1 when bound to rhodopsin inhibits signaling and turns off photo-transduction completely.[16] As is true for many enzymes, rhodopsin kinase is regulated by the activity of other proteins. In this case, it is negatively regulated by recoverin [17]. In the dark state of the rod cells' recoverin inhibits rhodopsin kinase. Specifically, a study has proven that GRK1 acts on the cytoplasmic loops of rhodopsin both the second and third loops. The cytoplasmic loops act specifically where transducin binds to rhodopsin so this allows GRK1 and transducin to compete for the binding site on rhodopsin. With recoverin present, it exists between GRK1 and rhodopsin and it was shown that when bound competition between GRK1 and transducin suppressed.[18]

See also


  1. Lorenz, W.; Inglese, J.; Palczewski. K.J.; Onorato, J.; Caron, M.G.; Lefkowitz, R.J. (1991). "The Receptor Kinase Family: Primary Structure of Rhodopsin Kinase Reveals Similarities to the β-Adrenergic Receptor Kinase". Proc. Nat’l Acad. Sci. USA. 88: 8715–8719. PMID 1656454. 
  2. Benovic, J.L.; Mayor, F. Jr.; Somers, R.L.; Caron, M.G.; Lefkowitz, R.J. (1986). "Light-dependent phosphorylation of rhodopsin by β-adrenergic receptor kinase". Nature. 321 (6073): 869–872. PMID 3014340. doi:10.1038/321869a0. 
  3. Shichi, H.; Somers, R.L. (1978). "Light-dependent phosphorylation of rhodopsin. Purification and properties of rhodopsin kinase". J. Biol. Chem. 253 (19): 7040–7046. PMID 690139. 
  4. Palczewski, K.; McDowell, J.H.; Hargrave, P.A. (1988). "Purification and characterization of rhodopsin kinase". J. Biol. Chem. 263 (28): 14067–14073. PMID 2844754. 
  5. Weller, M.; Virmaux, N.; Mandel, P. (1975). "Light-stimulated phosphorylation of rhodopsin in the retina: the presence of a protein kinase that is specific for photobleached rhodopsin". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. 72 (1): 381–385. PMC 432309Freely accessible. PMID 164024. doi:10.1073/pnas.72.1.381. 
  6. Cha, K.; Bruel, C.; Inglese, J.; Khorana, H.G. (1997). "Rhodopsin kinase: expression in baculovirus-infected insect cells, and characterization of post-translational modifications". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. 94 (20): 10577–10582. PMC 23407Freely accessible. PMID 9380677. doi:10.1073/pnas.94.20.10577. 
  7. Khani, S.C.; Abitbol, M.; Yamamoto, S.; Maravic-Magovcevic, I.; Dryja, T.P. (1996). "Characterization and chromosomal localization of the gene for human rhodopsin kinase". Genomics. 35 (3): 571–576. PMID 8812493. doi:10.1006/geno.1996.0399. 
  8. Chen, C.K.; Zhang, K.; Church-Kopish, J.; Huang, W.; Zhang, H.; Chen, Y.J.; Frederick, J.M.; Baehr, W. (2001). "Characterization of human GRK7 as a potential cone opsin kinase". Mol. Vis. 7: 305–313. PMID 11754336. 
  9. Willets, J.M.; Challiss, R.A.; Nahorski, S.R. (2003). "Non-visual GRKs: are we seeing the whole picture?". Trends Pharmacol. Sci. 24: 626–633. PMID 14654303. doi:10.1016/j.tips.2003.10.003. 
  10. Yamamoto S, Sippel KC, Berson EL, Dryja TP (1997). "Defects in the rhodopsin kinase gene in the Oguchi form of stationary night blindness.". Nat. Genet. 15 (2): 175–8. PMID 9020843. doi:10.1038/ng0297-175. 
  11. Inglese, J.; Glickman, J.F.; Lorenz, W.; Caron, M.G.; Lefkowitz, R.J. (1992). "Isoprenylation of a Protein Kinase: Farnesylation / α-Carboxyl Methylation Required for Full Enzymatic Activity of Rhodopsin Kinase.". J. Biol. Chem. 267: 1422–1425. PMID 1730692. 
  12. Kutuzov, Mikhail A.; Andreeva, Alexandra V.; Bennett, Nelly (December 2012). "Regulation of the methylation status of G protein-coupled receptor kinase 1 (rhodopsin kinase)". Cellular Signalling. 24 (12): 2259–2267. doi:10.1016/j.cellsig.2012.07.020. 
  13. Sakurai, Keisuke; Chen, Jeannie; Khani, Shahrokh C.; Kefalov, Vladimir J. (3 April 2015). "Regulation of Mammalian Cone Phototransduction by Recoverin and Rhodopsin Kinase". Journal of Biological Chemistry. 290 (14): 9239–9250. PMC 4423708Freely accessible. PMID 25673692. doi:10.1074/jbc.M115.639591. 
  14. Sakurai, Keisuke; Young, Joyce E.; Kefalov, Vladimir J.; Khani, Shahrokh C. (29 August 2011). "Variation in Rhodopsin Kinase Expression Alters the Dim Flash Response Shut Off and the Light Adaptation in Rod Photoreceptors". Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science. 52 (9): 6793. doi:10.1167/iovs.11-7158. 
  15. Sakurai, Keisuke; Chen, Jeannie; Khani, Shahrokh C.; Kefalov, Vladimir J. (3 April 2015). "Regulation of Mammalian Cone Phototransduction by Recoverin and Rhodopsin Kinase". Journal of Biological Chemistry. 290 (14): 9239–9250. PMC 4423708Freely accessible. PMID 25673692. doi:10.1074/jbc.M115.639591. 
  16. Lodish, Harvey (2013). Molecular cell biology (Seventh edition. ed.). New York: Worth Publ. ISBN 978-1429234139. 
  17. Chen, C.-K.; Inglese, J.; Lefkowitz, R.J.; Hurley, J.B. (1995). "Ca(2+)-Dependent Interaction of Recoverin with Rhodopsin Kinase in the Regulation of Rhodopsin Signaling". J. Biol. Chem. 270: 18060–18065. PMID 7629115. 
  18. Komolov, Konstantin E.; Senin, Ivan I.; Kovaleva, Nadezda A.; Christoph, Mathias P.; Churumova, Valeriya A.; Grigoriev, Ilya I.; Akhtar, Muhammad; Philippov, Pavel P.; Koch, Karl-Wilhelm (July 2009). "Mechanism of rhodopsin kinase regulation by recoverin". Journal of Neurochemistry. 110 (1): 72–79. doi:10.1111/j.1471-4159.2009.06118.x. 

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