Levofloxacin (oral)

Jump to: navigation, search
Levofloxacin (oral)
Black Box Warning
Adult Indications & Dosage
Pediatric Indications & Dosage
Contraindications
Warnings & Precautions
Adverse Reactions
Drug Interactions
Use in Specific Populations
Administration & Monitoring
Overdosage
Pharmacology
Clinical Studies
How Supplied
Images
Patient Counseling Information
Precautions with Alcohol
Brand Names
Look-Alike Names

Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1]; Associate Editor(s)-in-Chief: Adeel Jamil, M.D. [2]

Disclaimer

WikiDoc MAKES NO GUARANTEE OF VALIDITY. WikiDoc is not a professional health care provider, nor is it a suitable replacement for a licensed healthcare provider. WikiDoc is intended to be an educational tool, not a tool for any form of healthcare delivery. The educational content on WikiDoc drug pages is based upon the FDA package insert, National Library of Medicine content and practice guidelines / consensus statements. WikiDoc does not promote the administration of any medication or device that is not consistent with its labeling. Please read our full disclaimer here.

Black Box Warning

WARNING
See full prescribing information for complete Boxed Warning.
  • Fluoroquinolones, including Levofloxacin, are associated with an increased risk of tendinitis and tendon rupture in all ages. This risk is further increased in older patients usually over 60 years of age, in patients taking corticosteroid drugs, and in patients with kidney, heart or lung transplants.
  • Fluoroquinolones, including Levofloxacin, may exacerbate muscle weakness in persons with myasthenia gravis. Avoid Levofloxacin in patients with a known history of myasthenia gravis.

Overview

Levofloxacin (oral) is an antibiotic and fluoroquinolone that is FDA approved for the treatment of infections caused by designated, susceptible bacteria including pneumonia, acute bacterial sinusitis, acute bacterial exacerbation of chronic bronchitis, skin and skin structure infections, chronic bacterial prostatitis, urinary tract infections, acute pyelonephritis, inhalational anthrax, and plague. There is a Black Box Warning for this drug as shown here. Common adverse reactions include diarrhea, nausea, dizziness, headache, and insomnia.

Adult Indications and Dosage

FDA-Labeled Indications and Dosage (Adult)

  • To reduce the development of drug-resistant bacteria and maintain the effectiveness of Levofloxacin and other antibacterial drugs, Levofloxacin should be used only to treat or prevent infections that are proven or strongly suspected to be caused by susceptible bacteria. When culture and susceptibility information are available, they should be considered in selecting or modifying antibacterial therapy. In the absence of such data, local epidemiology and susceptibility patterns may contribute to the empiric selection of therapy.
  • Levofloxacin Oral Solution are indicated for the treatment of adults (≥18 years of age) with mild, moderate, and severe infections caused by susceptible isolates of the designated microorganisms in the conditions listed in this section.
Culture and susceptibility testing
  • Appropriate culture and susceptibility tests should be performed before treatment in order to isolate and identify organisms causing the infection and to determine their susceptibility to levofloxacin. Therapy with Levofloxacin may be initiated before results of these tests are known; once results become available, appropriate therapy should be selected.
  • As with other drugs in this class, some isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa may develop resistance fairly rapidly during treatment with Levofloxacin. Culture and susceptibility testing performed periodically during therapy will provide information about the continued susceptibility of the pathogens to the antimicrobial agent and also the possible emergence of bacterial resistance.
Nosocomial Pneumonia
Community-Acquired Pneumonia: 7–14 day Treatment Regimen
Community-Acquired Pneumonia: 5-day Treatment Regimen
Acute Bacterial Sinusitis: 5-day and 10–14 day Treatment Regimens
Acute Bacterial Exacerbation of Chronic Bronchitis
Complicated Skin and Skin Structure Infections
Uncomplicated Skin and Skin Structure Infections
Chronic Bacterial Prostatitis
Complicated Urinary Tract Infections: 5-day Treatment Regimen
Complicated Urinary Tract Infections: 10-day Treatment Regimen
Acute Pyelonephritis: 5 or 10-day Treatment Regimen
Uncomplicated Urinary Tract Infections
Inhalational Anthrax (Post-Exposure)
  • Levofloxacin is indicated for inhalational anthrax (post-exposure) to reduce the incidence or progression of disease following exposure to aerosolized Bacillus anthracis. The effectiveness of Levofloxacin is based on plasma concentrations achieved in humans, a surrogate endpoint reasonably likely to predict clinical benefit. Levofloxacin has not been tested in humans for the post-exposure prevention of inhalation anthrax. The safety of Levofloxacin in adults for durations of therapy beyond 28 days or in pediatric patients for durations of therapy beyond 14 days has not been studied. Prolonged Levofloxacin therapy should only be used when the benefit outweighs the risk.
Plague
  • Levofloxacin is indicated for treatment of plague, including pneumonic and septicemic plague, due to Yersinia pestis (Y. pestis) and prophylaxis for plague in adults and pediatric patients, 6 months of age and older. Efficacy studies of Levofloxacin could not be conducted in humans with plague for ethical and feasibility reasons. Therefore, approval of this indication was based on an efficacy study conducted in animals.
Dosage in Adult Patients with Normal Renal Function
  • The usual dose of Levofloxacin Oral Solution is 250 mg, 500 mg, or 750 mg administered orally every 24 hours, as indicated by infection and described in Table 1.
This image is provided by the National Library of Medicine.
This image is provided by the National Library of Medicine.
Dosage Adjustment in Adults with Renal Impairment
  • Administer Levofloxacin with caution in the presence of renal insufficiency. Careful clinical observation and appropriate laboratory studies should be performed prior to and during therapy since elimination of levofloxacin may be reduced.
  • No adjustment is necessary for patients with a creatinine clearance ≥ 50 mL/min.
  • In patients with impaired renal function creatinine clearance <50 mL/min, adjustment of the dosage regimen is necessary to avoid the accumulation of levofloxacin due to decreased clearance.
  • Table 3 shows how to adjust dose based on creatinine clearance.
This image is provided by the National Library of Medicine.

Off-Label Use and Dosage (Adult)

Guideline-Supported Use

Bacteremia associated with intravascular line
  • Dosing Information
  • 750 mg q24 hrs
Bacterial infectious disease; Prophylaxis-Febrile neutropenia, Chemotherapy-induced
Chlamydial infection
  • Dosing Information
  • 500 mg PO q24hr for 7 days
Epididymitis (caused by enteric organisms or with negative gonococcal nucleic acid amplification test)
  • Dosing Information
  • 500 mg PO q24hr for 10 days
Infectious enteritis
Nongonococcal urethritis
  • Dosing Information
  • 500 mg PO q24hr for 7 days
Otitis media
Postoperative infection
Traveler's diarrhea
  • Dosing Information
  • 500 mg PO q24hr for 1 to 3 days
Tuberculosis
Inhalational Anthrax (post-exposure)
  • Levofloxacin is indicated for inhalational anthrax (post-exposure) to reduce the incidence or progression of disease following exposure to aerosolized Bacillus anthracis. The effectiveness of Levofloxacin is based on plasma concentrations achieved in humans, a surrogate endpoint reasonably likely to predict clinical benefit. Levofloxacin has not been tested in humans for the post-exposure prevention of inhalation anthrax. The safety of Levofloxacin in adults for durations of therapy beyond 28 days or in pediatric patients for durations of therapy beyond 14 days has not been studied. Prolonged Levofloxacin therapy should only be used when the benefit outweighs the risk
Plague
  • Levofloxacin is indicated for treatment of plague, including pneumonic and septicemic plague, due to Yersinia pestis (Y. pestis) and prophylaxis for plague in adults and pediatric patients, 6 months of age and older. Efficacy studies of Levofloxacin could not be conducted in humans with plague for ethical and feasibility reasons. Therefore, approval of this indication was based on an efficacy study conducted in animals.

Non–Guideline-Supported Use

There is limited information regarding Off-Label Non–Guideline-Supported Use of Levofloxacin in adult patients.

Pediatric Indications and Dosage

FDA-Labeled Indications and Dosage (Pediatric)

Inhalational Anthrax (Post-Exposure)
  • Levofloxacin is indicated for inhalational anthrax (post-exposure) to reduce the incidence or progression of disease following exposure to aerosolized Bacillus anthracis. The effectiveness of Levofloxacin is based on plasma concentrations achieved in humans, a surrogate endpoint reasonably likely to predict clinical benefit. Levofloxacin has not been tested in humans for the post-exposure prevention of inhalation anthrax. The safety of Levofloxacin in adults for durations of therapy beyond 28 days or in pediatric patients for durations of therapy beyond 14 days has not been studied. Prolonged Levofloxacin therapy should only be used when the benefit outweighs the risk.
Plague
  • Levofloxacin is indicated for treatment of plague, including pneumonic and septicemic plague, due to Yersinia pestis (Y. pestis) and prophylaxis for plague in adults and pediatric patients, 6 months of age and older. Efficacy studies of Levofloxacin could not be conducted in humans with plague for ethical and feasibility reasons. Therefore, approval of this indication was based on an efficacy study conducted in animals.
This image is provided by the National Library of Medicine.

Off-Label Use and Dosage (Pediatric)

Guideline-Supported Use

There is limited information regarding Off-Label Guideline-Supported Use of Levofloxacin in pediatric patients.

Non–Guideline-Supported Use

There is limited information regarding Off-Label Non–Guideline-Supported Use of Levofloxacin in pediatric patients.

Contraindications

Levofloxacin is contraindicated in persons with known hypersensitivity to levofloxacin, or other quinolone antibacterials.

Warnings

WARNING
See full prescribing information for complete Boxed Warning.
  • Fluoroquinolones, including Levofloxacin, are associated with an increased risk of tendinitis and tendon rupture in all ages. This risk is further increased in older patients usually over 60 years of age, in patients taking corticosteroid drugs, and in patients with kidney, heart or lung transplants.
  • Fluoroquinolones, including Levofloxacin, may exacerbate muscle weakness in persons with myasthenia gravis. Avoid Levofloxacin in patients with a known history of myasthenia gravis.

Tendinopathy and Tendon Rupture=

Exacerbation of Myasthenia Gravis
Hypersensitivity Reactions
Other Serious and Sometimes Fatal Reactions
  • Other serious and sometimes fatal events, some due to hypersensitivity, and some due to uncertain etiology, have been reported rarely in patients receiving therapy with fluoroquinolones, including Levofloxacin. These events may be severe and generally occur following the administration of multiple doses. Clinical manifestations may include one or more of the following:
  • The drug should be discontinued immediately at the first appearance of skin rash, jaundice, or any other sign of hypersensitivity and supportive measures instituted.
Hepatotoxicity
  • Post-marketing reports of severe hepatotoxicity (including acute hepatitis and fatal events) have been received for patients treated with Levofloxacin. No evidence of serious drug-associated hepatotoxicity was detected in clinical trials of over 7,000 patients. Severe hepatotoxicity generally occurred within 14 days of initiation of therapy and most cases occurred within 6 days. Most cases of severe hepatotoxicity were not associated with hypersensitivity. The majority of fatal hepatotoxicity reports occurred in patients 65 years of age or older and most were not associated with hypersensitivity. Levofloxacin should be discontinued immediately if the patient develops signs and symptoms of hepatitis.
Central Nervous System Effects
Clostridium difficile-Associated Diarrhea
  • C. difficile produces toxins A and B which contribute to the development of CDAD. Hypertoxin producing strains of C. difficile cause increased morbidity and mortality, as these infections can be refractory to antimicrobial therapy and may require colectomy. CDAD must be considered in all patients who present with diarrhea following antibiotic use. Careful medical history is necessary since CDAD has been reported to occur over two months after the administration of antibacterial agents.
  • If CDAD is suspected or confirmed, ongoing antibiotic use not directed against C. difficile may need to be discontinued. Appropriate fluid and electrolyte management, protein supplementation, antibiotic treatment of C. difficile, and surgical evaluation should be instituted as clinically indicated.
Peripheral Neuropathy
  • Cases of sensory or sensorimotor axonal polyneuropathy affecting small and/or large axons resulting in paresthesias, hypoesthesias, dysesthesias and weakness have been reported in patients receiving fluoroquinolones, including Levofloxacin. Symptoms may occur soon after initiation of Levofloxacin and may be irreversible. Levofloxacin should be discontinued immediately if the patient experiences symptoms of neuropathy including pain, burning, tingling, numbness, and/or weakness or other alterations of sensation including light touch, pain, temperature, position sense, and vibratory sensation.
Prolongation of the QT Interval
Musculoskeletal Disorders in Pediatric Patients and Arthropathic Effects in Animals
  • In immature rats and dogs, the oral and intravenous administration of levofloxacin resulted in increased osteochondrosis. Histopathological examination of the weight-bearing joints of immature dogs dosed with levofloxacin revealed persistent lesions of the cartilage. Other fluoroquinolones also produce similar erosions in the weight-bearing joints and other signs of arthropathy in immature animals of various species.
Blood Glucose Disturbances
Photosensitivity/Phototoxicity
Development of Drug Resistant Bacteria
  • Prescribing Levofloxacin in the absence of a proven or strongly suspected bacterial infection or a prophylactic indication is unlikely to provide benefit to the patient and increases the risk of the development of drug-resistant bacteria

Adverse Reactions

Clinical Trials Experience

  • Because clinical trials are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in the clinical trials of a drug cannot be directly compared to rates in the clinical trials of another drug and may not reflect the rates observed in practice.
  • The data described below reflect exposure to Levofloxacin in 7537 patients in 29 pooled Phase 3 clinical trials. The population studied had a mean age of 50 years (approximately 74% of the population was < 65 years of age), 50% were male, 71% were Caucasian, 19% were Black. Patients were treated with Levofloxacin for a wide variety of infectious diseases. Patients received Levofloxacin doses of 750 mg once daily, 250 mg once daily, or 500 mg once or twice daily. Treatment duration was usually 3–14 days, and the mean number of days on therapy was 10 days.
  • The overall incidence, type and distribution of adverse reactions was similar in patients receiving Levofloxacin doses of 750 mg once daily, 250 mg once daily, and 500 mg once or twice daily. Discontinuation of Levofloxacin due to adverse drug reactions occurred in 4.3% of patients overall, 3.8% of patients treated with the 250 mg and 500 mg doses and 5.4% of patients treated with the 750 mg dose. The most common adverse drug reactions leading to discontinuation with the 250 and 500 mg doses were gastrointestinal (1.4%), primarily nausea (0.6%); vomiting (0.4%); dizziness (0.3%); and headache (0.2%). The most common adverse drug reactions leading to discontinuation with the 750 mg dose were gastrointestinal (1.2%), primarily nausea (0.6%), vomiting (0.5%); dizziness (0.3%); and headache (0.3%).
  • Adverse reactions occurring in ≥1% of Levofloxacin-treated patients and less common adverse reactions, occurring in 0.1 to <1% of Levofloxacin-treated patients, are shown in Table 4 and Table 5, respectively. The most common adverse drug reactions (≥3%) are nausea, headache, diarrhea, insomnia, constipation, and dizziness.
This image is provided by the National Library of Medicine.
This image is provided by the National Library of Medicine.
This image is provided by the National Library of Medicine.
  • In clinical trials using multiple-dose therapy, ophthalmologic abnormalities, including cataracts and multiple punctate lenticular opacities, have been noted in patients undergoing treatment with quinolones, including Levofloxacin. The relationship of the drugs to these events is not presently established.
Cardiovascular
Dermatologic
Endocrine metabolic
Hematologic
Digestive
Hepatic
Immunologic
Musculoskeletal
Neurologic
Ophthalmic
Renal

Others

Postmarketing Experience

  • Table 6 lists adverse reactions that have been identified during post-approval use of Levofloxacin. Because these reactions are reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, reliably estimating their frequency or establishing a causal relationship to drug exposure is not always possible.
This image is provided by the National Library of Medicine.

Drug Interactions

Chelation Agents
Warfarin
  • No significant effect of Levofloxacin on the peak plasma concentrations, AUC, and other disposition parameters for R- and S- warfarin was detected in a clinical study involving healthy volunteers. Similarly, no apparent effect of warfarin on levofloxacin absorption and disposition was observed. However, there have been reports during the postmarketing experience in patients that Levofloxacin enhances the effects of warfarin. Elevations of the prothrombin time in the setting of concurrent warfarin and Levofloxacin use have been associated with episodes of bleeding. Prothrombin time, International Normalized Ratio (INR), or other suitable anticoagulation tests should be closely monitored if Levofloxacin is administered concomitantly with warfarin. Patients should also be monitored for evidence of bleeding.
Antidiabetic Agents
Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs
Theophylline
  • No significant effect of Levofloxacin on the plasma concentrations, AUC, and other disposition parameters for theophylline was detected in a clinical study involving healthy volunteers. Similarly, no apparent effect of theophylline on levofloxacin absorption and disposition was observed. However, concomitant administration of other fluoroquinolones with theophylline has resulted in prolonged elimination half-life, elevated serum theophylline levels, and a subsequent increase in the risk of theophylline-related adverse reactions in the patient population. Therefore, theophylline levels should be closely monitored and appropriate dosage adjustments made when Levofloxacin is co-administered. Adverse reactions, including seizures, may occur with or without an elevation in serum theophylline levels.
Cyclosporine
  • No significant effect of Levofloxacin on the peak plasma concentrations, AUC, and other disposition parameters for cyclosporine was detected in a clinical study involving healthy volunteers. However, elevated serum levels of cyclosporine have been reported in the patient population when co-administered with some other fluoroquinolones. Levofloxacin Cmax and ke were slightly lower while Tmax and t½ were slightly longer in the presence of cyclosporine than those observed in other studies without concomitant medication. The differences, however, are not considered to be clinically significant. Therefore, no dosage adjustment is required for Levofloxacin or cyclosporine when administered concomitantly.
Digoxin
  • No significant effect of Levofloxacin on the peak plasma concentrations, AUC, and other disposition parameters for digoxin was detected in a clinical study involving healthy volunteers. Levofloxacin absorption and disposition kinetics were similar in the presence or absence of digoxin. Therefore, no dosage adjustment for Levofloxacin or digoxin is required when administered concomitantly.
Probenecid and Cimetidine
  • No significant effect of probenecid or cimetidine on the Cmax of levofloxacin was observed in a clinical study involving healthy volunteers. The AUC and t½ of levofloxacin were higher while CL/F and CLR were lower during concomitant treatment of Levofloxacin with probenecid or cimetidine compared to Levofloxacin alone. However, these changes do not warrant dosage adjustment for Levofloxacin when probenecid or cimetidine is co-administered.
Interactions with Laboratory or Diagnostic Testing
  • Some fluoroquinolones, including Levofloxacin, may produce false-positive urine screening results for opiates using commercially available immunoassay kits. Confirmation of positive opiate screens by more specific methods may be necessary.

Use in Specific Populations

Pregnancy

Pregnancy Category (FDA): C

  • Levofloxacin was not teratogenic in rats at oral doses as high as 810 mg/kg/day which corresponds to 9.4 times the highest recommended human dose based upon relative body surface area, or at intravenous doses as high as 160 mg/kg/day corresponding to 1.9 times the highest recommended human dose based upon relative body surface area. The oral dose of 810 mg/kg/day to rats caused decreased fetal body weight and increased fetal mortality. No teratogenicity was observed when rabbits were dosed orally as high as 50 mg/kg/day which corresponds to 1.1 times the highest recommended human dose based upon relative body surface area, or when dosed intravenously as high as 25 mg/kg/day, corresponding to 0.5 times the highest recommended human dose based upon relative body surface area.
  • There are, however, no adequate and well-controlled studies in pregnant women. Levofloxacin should be used during pregnancy only if the potential benefit justifies the potential risk to the fetus.


Pregnancy Category (AUS):

  • Australian Drug Evaluation Committee (ADEC) Pregnancy Category
  • There is no Australian Drug Evaluation Committee (ADEC) guidance on usage of Levofloxacin in women who are pregnant.

Labor and Delivery

There is no FDA guidance on use of Levofloxacin during labor and delivery.

Nursing Mothers

  • Based on data on other fluoroquinolones and very limited data on Levofloxacin, it can be presumed that levofloxacin will be excreted in human milk. Because of the potential for serious adverse reactions from Levofloxacin in nursing infants, a decision should be made whether to discontinue nursing or to discontinue the drug, taking into account the importance of the drug to the mother.

Pediatric Use

  • Inhalational Anthrax (Post-Exposure)
  • Levofloxacin is indicated in pediatric patients 6 months of age and older, for inhalational anthrax (post-exposure). The risk-benefit assessment indicates that administration of levofloxacin to pediatric patients is appropriate. The safety of levofloxacin in pediatric patients treated for more than 14 days has not been studied.
Plague
  • Levofloxacin is indicated in pediatric patients, 6 months of age and older, for treatment of plague, including pneumonic and septicemic plague due to Yersinia pestis (Y. pestis) and prophylaxis for plague. Efficacy studies of Levofloxacin could not be conducted in humans with pneumonic plague for ethical and feasibility reasons. Therefore, approval of this indication was based on an efficacy study conducted in animals. The risk-benefit assessment indicates that administration of levofloxacin to pediatric patients is appropriate.
  • Safety and effectiveness in pediatric patients below the age of six months have not been established.
Adverse Events
  • In clinical trials, 1534 children (6 months to 16 years of age) were treated with oral and intravenous Levofloxacin. Children 6 months to 5 years of age received Levofloxacin 10 mg/kg twice a day and children greater than 5 years of age received 10 mg/kg once a day (maximum 500 mg per day) for approximately 10 days.
  • A subset of children in the clinical trials (1340 Levofloxacin-treated and 893 non-fluoroquinolone-treated) enrolled in a prospective, long-term surveillance study to assess the incidence of protocol-defined musculoskeletal disorders (arthralgia, arthritis, tendinopathy, gait abnormality) during 60 days and 1 year following the first dose of the study drug. Children treated with Levofloxacin had a significantly higher incidence of musculoskeletal disorders when compared to the non-fluoroquinolone-treated children as illustrated in Table 7.
This image is provided by the National Library of Medicine.

Geriatic Use

  • Geriatric patients are at increased risk for developing severe tendon disorders including tendon rupture when being treated with a fluoroquinolone such as Levofloxacin. This risk is further increased in patients receiving concomitant corticosteroid therapy. Tendinitis or tendon rupture can involve the Achilles, hand, shoulder, or other tendon sites and can occur during or after completion of therapy; cases occurring up to several months after fluoroquinolone treatment have been reported. Caution should be used when prescribing Levofloxacin to elderly patients especially those on corticosteroids. Patients should be informed of this potential side effect and advised to discontinue Levofloxacin and contact their healthcare provider if any symptoms of tendinitis or tendon rupture occur.
  • In Phase 3 clinical trials, 1,945 Levofloxacin-treated patients (26%) were ≥ 65 years of age. Of these, 1,081 patients (14%) were between the ages of 65 and 74 and 864 patients (12%) were 75 years or older. No overall differences in safety or effectiveness were observed between these subjects and younger subjects, but greater sensitivity of some older individuals cannot be ruled out.
  • Severe, and sometimes fatal, cases of hepatotoxicity have been reported post-marketing in association with Levofloxacin. The majority of fatal hepatotoxicity reports occurred in patients 65 years of age or older and most were not associated with hypersensitivity. Levofloxacin should be discontinued immediately if the patient develops signs and symptoms of hepatitis.
  • The pharmacokinetic properties of levofloxacin in younger adults and elderly adults do not differ significantly when creatinine clearance is taken into consideration. However, since the drug is known to be substantially excreted by the kidney, the risk of toxic reactions to this drug may be greater in patients with impaired renal function. Because elderly patients are more likely to have decreased renal function, care should be taken in dose selection, and it may be useful to monitor renal function.

Gender

There is no FDA guidance on the use of Levofloxacin with respect to specific gender populations.

Race

There is no FDA guidance on the use of Levofloxacin with respect to specific racial populations.

Renal Impairment

  • Clearance of levofloxacin is substantially reduced and plasma elimination half-life is substantially prolonged in patients with impaired renal function (creatinine clearance < 50 mL/min), requiring dosage adjustment in such patients to avoid accumulation. Neither hemodialysis nor continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) is effective in removal of levofloxacin from the body, indicating that supplemental doses of Levofloxacin are not required following hemodialysis or CAPD.

Hepatic Impairment

There is no FDA guidance on the use of Levofloxacin in patients with hepatic impairment.

Females of Reproductive Potential and Males

There is no FDA guidance on the use of Levofloxacin in women of reproductive potentials and males.

Immunocompromised Patients

There is no FDA guidance one the use of Levofloxacin in patients who are immunocompromised.

Administration and Monitoring

Administration

  • Oral solution

Monitoring

  • Blood Glucose Disturbances:
  • Warfarin:
  • No significant effect of Levofloxacin on the peak plasma concentrations, AUC, and other disposition parameters for R- and S- warfarin was detected in a clinical study involving healthy volunteers. Similarly, no apparent effect of warfarin on levofloxacin absorption and disposition was observed. However, there have been reports during the postmarketing experience in patients that Levofloxacin enhances the effects of warfarin. Elevations of the prothrombin time in the setting of concurrent warfarin and Levofloxacin use have been associated with episodes of bleeding. Prothrombin time, International Normalized Ratio (INR), or other suitable anticoagulation tests should be closely monitored if Levofloxacin is administered concomitantly with warfarin. Patients should also be monitored for evidence of bleeding.
  • Antidiabetic Agents:
  • Theophylline:
  • No significant effect of Levofloxacin on the plasma concentrations, AUC, and other disposition parameters for theophylline was detected in a clinical study involving healthy volunteers. Similarly, no apparent effect of theophylline on levofloxacin absorption and disposition was observed. However, concomitant administration of other fluoroquinolones with theophylline has resulted in prolonged elimination half-life, elevated serum theophylline levels, and a subsequent increase in the risk of theophylline-related adverse reactions in the patient population. Therefore, theophylline levels should be closely monitored and appropriate dosage adjustments made when Levofloxacin is co-administered. Adverse reactions, including seizures, may occur with or without an elevation in serum theophylline levels.

IV Compatibility

There is limited information regarding IV Compatibility of Levofloxacin (oral) in the drug label.

Overdosage

Acute Overdose

  • In the event of an acute overdosage, the stomach should be emptied. The patient should be observed and appropriate hydration maintained. Levofloxacin is not efficiently removed by hemodialysis or peritoneal dialysis.
  • Levofloxacin exhibits a low potential for acute toxicity. Mice, rats, dogs and monkeys exhibited the following clinical signs after receiving a single high dose of Levofloxacin: ataxia, ptosis, decreased locomotor activity, dyspnea, prostration, tremors, and convulsions. Doses in excess of 1500 mg/kg orally and 250 mg/kg IV produced significant mortality in rodents.

Chronic Overdose

There is limited information regarding Chronic Overdose of Levofloxacin in the drug label.

Pharmacology

Levofloxacin2DCSD.png
Levofloxacin ball-and-stick.png
Levofloxacin (oral)
Systematic (IUPAC) name
(S)-9-fluoro-2,3-dihydro-3-methyl-10-(4-methylpiperazin-1-yl)-7-oxo-7H-pyrido[1,2,3-de]-1,4-benzoxazine-6-carboxylic acid
Identifiers
CAS number 100986-85-4
ATC code J01MA12 S01AE05 (WHO)
PubChem 149096
DrugBank DB01137
Chemical data
Formula C18H20FN3O4 
Mol. mass 361.368 g/mol
SMILES eMolecules & PubChem
Pharmacokinetic data
Bioavailability 99%
Protein binding 24 to 38%
Metabolism <5% desmethyl and N-oxide metabolites
Half life 6 to 8 hours
Excretion Urinary, mainly unchanged
Therapeutic considerations
Licence data

US

Pregnancy cat.

C(US)

Legal status

Prescription only

Routes Oral, IV, ophthalmic

Mechanism of Action

  • Levofloxacin is a member of the fluoroquinolone class of antibacterial agents and acts by inhibiting DNA gyrase (bacterial topoisomerase II) which is an enzyme required for DNA replication, transcription, repair, and recombination.

Structure

  • Levofloxacin is a synthetic broad-spectrum antibacterial agent for oral administration. Chemically, levofloxacin, a chiral fluorinated carboxyquinolone, is the pure (-)-(S)-enantiomer of the racemic drug substance ofloxacin. The chemical name is (-)-(S)-9-fluoro-2,3-dihydro-3-methyl-10-(4-methyl-1-piperazinyl)-7-oxo-7H-pyrido[1,2,3-de]-1,4-benzoxazine-6-carboxylic acid hemihydrate.
File:Levofloxacin (oral)01.jpeg
This image is provided by the National Library of Medicine.
  • The empirical formula is C18H20FN3O4 • ½ H2O and the molecular weight is 370.38. Levofloxacin is a light yellowish-white to yellow-white crystal or crystalline powder. The molecule exists as a zwitterion at the pH conditions in the small intestine.

The data demonstrate that from pH 0.6 to 5.8, the solubility of levofloxacin is essentially constant (approximately 100 mg/mL). Levofloxacin is considered soluble to freely soluble in this pH range, as defined by USP nomenclature. Above pH 5.8, the solubility increases rapidly to its maximum at pH 6.7 (272 mg/mL) and is considered freely soluble in this range. Above pH 6.7, the solubility decreases and reaches a minimum value (about 50 mg/mL) at a pH of approximately 6.9.

Levofloxacin has the potential to form stable coordination compounds with many metal ions. This in vitro chelation potential has the following formation order: Al+3>Cu+2>Zn+2>Mg+2>Ca+2.

Pharmacodynamics

There is limited information regarding Levofloxacin (oral) Pharmacodynamics in the drug label.

Pharmacokinetics

  • The mean ± SD pharmacokinetic parameters of levofloxacin determined under single and steady-state conditions following oral tablet, oral solution, or intravenous (IV) doses of Levofloxacin are summarized in Table 8.
This image is provided by the National Library of Medicine.
This image is provided by the National Library of Medicine.
This image is provided by the National Library of Medicine.
Absorption
  • Levofloxacin is rapidly and essentially completely absorbed after oral administration. Peak plasma concentrations are usually attained one to two hours after oral dosing. The absolute bioavailability of levofloxacin from a 500 mg tablet and a 750 mg tablet of Levofloxacin are both approximately 99%, demonstrating complete oral absorption of levofloxacin. Following a single intravenous dose of Levofloxacin to healthy volunteers, the mean ± SD peak plasma concentration attained was 6.2 ± 1.0 mcg/mL after a 500 mg dose infused over 60 minutes and 11.5 ± 4.0 mcg/mL after a 750 mg dose infused over 90 minutes. Levofloxacin Oral Solution and Tablet formulations are bioequivalent.
  • Levofloxacin pharmacokinetics are linear and predictable after single and multiple oral or IV dosing regimens. Steady-state conditions are reached within 48 hours following a 500 mg or 750 mg once-daily dosage regimen. The mean ± SD peak and trough plasma concentrations attained following multiple once-daily oral dosage regimens were approximately 5.7 ± 1.4 and 0.5 ± 0.2 mcg/mL after the 500 mg doses, and 8.6 ± 1.9 and 1.1 ± 0.4 mcg/mL after the 750 mg doses, respectively. The mean ± SD peak and trough plasma concentrations attained following multiple once-daily IV regimens were approximately 6.4 ± 0.8 and 0.6 ± 0.2 mcg/mL after the 500 mg doses, and 12.1 ± 4.1 and 1.3 ± 0.71 mcg/mL after the 750 mg doses, respectively. Oral administration of a 500 mg dose of Levofloxacin with food prolongs the time to peak concentration by approximately 1 hour and decreases the peak concentration by approximately 14% following tablet and approximately 25% following oral solution administration. Therefore, Levofloxacin Tablets can be administered without regard to food. It is recommended that Levofloxacin Oral Solution be taken 1 hour before or 2 hours after eating.
  • The plasma concentration profile of levofloxacin after IV administration is similar and comparable in extent of exposure (AUC) to that observed for Levofloxacin Tablets when equal doses (mg/mg) are administered. Therefore, the oral and IV routes of administration can be considered interchangeable (see FIGURE 2 and FIGURE 3).
This image is provided by the National Library of Medicine.
This image is provided by the National Library of Medicine.
Distribution
  • The mean volume of distribution of levofloxacin generally ranges from 74 to 112 L after single and multiple 500 mg or 750 mg doses, indicating widespread distribution into body tissues. Levofloxacin reaches its peak levels in skin tissues and in blister fluid of healthy subjects at approximately 3 hours after dosing. The skin tissue biopsy to plasma AUC ratio is approximately 2 and the blister fluid to plasma AUC ratio is approximately 1 following multiple once-daily oral administration of 750 mg and 500 mg doses of Levofloxacin, respectively, to healthy subjects. Levofloxacin also penetrates well into lung tissues. Lung tissue concentrations were generally 2- to 5-fold higher than plasma concentrations and ranged from approximately 2.4 to 11.3 mcg/g over a 24-hour period after a single 500 mg oral dose.
  • In vitro, over a clinically relevant range (1 to 10 mcg/mL) of serum/plasma levofloxacin concentrations, levofloxacin is approximately 24 to 38% bound to serum proteins across all species studied, as determined by the equilibrium dialysis method. Levofloxacin is mainly bound to serum albumin in humans. Levofloxacin binding to serum proteins is independent of the drug concentration.
Metabolism
  • Levofloxacin is stereochemically stable in plasma and urine and does not invert metabolically to its enantiomer, D-ofloxacin. Levofloxacin undergoes limited metabolism in humans and is primarily excreted as unchanged drug in the urine. Following oral administration, approximately 87% of an administered dose was recovered as unchanged drug in urine within 48 hours, whereas less than 4% of the dose was recovered in feces in 72 hours. Less than 5% of an administered dose was recovered in the urine as the desmethyl and N-oxide metabolites, the only metabolites identified in humans. These metabolites have little relevant pharmacological activity.
Excretion
  • Levofloxacin is excreted largely as unchanged drug in the urine. The mean terminal plasma elimination half-life of levofloxacin ranges from approximately 6 to 8 hours following single or multiple doses of levofloxacin given orally or intravenously. The mean apparent total body clearance and renal clearance range from approximately 144 to 226 mL/min and 96 to 142 mL/min, respectively. Renal clearance in excess of the glomerular filtration rate suggests that tubular secretion of levofloxacin occurs in addition to its glomerular filtration. Concomitant administration of either cimetidine or probenecid results in approximately 24% and 35% reduction in the levofloxacin renal clearance, respectively, indicating that secretion of levofloxacin occurs in the renal proximal tubule. No levofloxacin crystals were found in any of the urine samples freshly collected from subjects receiving Levofloxacin.
Geriatric
  • There are no significant differences in levofloxacin pharmacokinetics between young and elderly subjects when the subjects' differences in creatinine clearance are taken into consideration. Following a 500 mg oral dose of Levofloxacin to healthy elderly subjects (66–80 years of age), the mean terminal plasma elimination half-life of levofloxacin was about 7.6 hours, as compared to approximately 6 hours in younger adults. The difference was attributable to the variation in renal function status of the subjects and was not believed to be clinically significant. Drug absorption appears to be unaffected by age. Levofloxacin dose adjustment based on age alone is not necessary.
Pediatrics
  • The pharmacokinetics of levofloxacin following a single 7 mg/kg intravenous dose were investigated in pediatric patients ranging in age from 6 months to 16 years. Pediatric patients cleared levofloxacin faster than adult patients, resulting in lower plasma exposures than adults for a given mg/kg dose. Subsequent pharmacokinetic analyses predicted that a dosage regimen of 8 mg/kg every 12 hours (not to exceed 250 mg per dose) for pediatric patients 6 months to 17 years of age would achieve comparable steady state plasma exposures (AUC0–24 and Cmax) to those observed in adult patients administered 500 mg of levofloxacin once every 24 hours.
Gender
  • There are no significant differences in levofloxacin pharmacokinetics between male and female subjects when subjects' differences in creatinine clearance are taken into consideration. Following a 500 mg oral dose of Levofloxacin to healthy male subjects, the mean terminal plasma elimination half-life of levofloxacin was about 7.5 hours, as compared to approximately 6.1 hours in female subjects. This difference was attributable to the variation in renal function status of the male and female subjects and was not believed to be clinically significant. Drug absorption appears to be unaffected by the gender of the subjects. Dose adjustment based on gender alone is not necessary.
Race
  • The effect of race on levofloxacin pharmacokinetics was examined through a covariate analysis performed on data from 72 subjects: 48 white and 24 non-white. The apparent total body clearance and apparent volume of distribution were not affected by the race of the subjects.
Renal Impairment
Hepatic Impairment
Bacterial Infection
Drug-Drug Interactions

Nonclinical Toxicology

Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment of Fertility
  • In a lifetime bioassay in rats, levofloxacin exhibited no carcinogenic potential following daily dietary administration for 2 years; the highest dose (100 mg/kg/day) was 1.4 times the highest recommended human dose (750 mg) based upon relative body surface area. Levofloxacin did not shorten the time to tumor development of UV-induced skin tumors in hairless albino (Skh-1) mice at any levofloxacin dose level and was therefore not photo-carcinogenic under conditions of this study. Dermal levofloxacin concentrations in the hairless mice ranged from 25 to 42 mcg/g at the highest levofloxacin dose level (300 mg/kg/day) used in the photo-carcinogenicity study. By comparison, dermal levofloxacin concentrations in human subjects receiving 750 mg of Levofloxacin averaged approximately 11.8 mcg/g at Cmax.
  • Levofloxacin was not mutagenic in the following assays: Ames bacterial mutation assay (S. typhimurium and E. coli), CHO/HGPRT forward mutation assay, mouse micronucleus test, mouse dominant lethal test, rat unscheduled DNA synthesis assay, and the mouse sister chromatid exchange assay. It was positive in the in vitro chromosomal aberration (CHL cell line) and sister chromatid exchange (CHL/IU cell line) assays.
  • Levofloxacin caused no impairment of fertility or reproductive performance in rats at oral doses as high as 360 mg/kg/day, corresponding to 4.2 times the highest recommended human dose based upon relative body surface area and intravenous doses as high as 100 mg/kg/day, corresponding to 1.2 times the highest recommended human dose based upon relative body surface area.
Animal Toxicology and/or Pharmacology
  • Levofloxacin and other quinolones have been shown to cause arthropathy in immature animals of most species tested. In immature dogs (4–5 months old), oral doses of 10 mg/kg/day for 7 days and intravenous doses of 4 mg/kg/day for 14 days of levofloxacin resulted in arthropathic lesions. Administration at oral doses of 300 mg/kg/day for 7 days and intravenous doses of 60 mg/kg/day for 4 weeks produced arthropathy in juvenile rats. Three-month old beagle dogs dosed orally with levofloxacin at 40 mg/kg/day exhibited clinically severe arthrotoxicity resulting in the termination of dosing at Day 8 of a 14-day dosing routine. Slight musculoskeletal clinical effects, in the absence of gross pathological or histopathological effects, resulted from the lowest dose level of 2.5 mg/kg/day (approximately 0.2-fold the pediatric dose based upon AUC comparisons). Synovitis and articular cartilage lesions were observed at the 10 and 40 mg/kg dose levels (approximately 0.7-fold and 2.4-fold the pediatric dose, respectively, based on AUC comparisons). Articular cartilage gross pathology and histopathology persisted to the end of the 18-week recovery period for those dogs from the 10 and 40 mg/kg/day dose levels.
  • In dogs, levofloxacin administered at 6 mg/kg or higher by rapid intravenous injection produced hypotensive effects. These effects were considered to be related to histamine release.
  • In vitro and in vivo studies in animals indicate that levofloxacin is neither an enzyme inducer nor inhibitor in the human therapeutic plasma concentration range; therefore, no drug metabolizing enzyme-related interactions with other drugs or agents are anticipated.

Clinical Studies

Nosocomial Pneumonia
  • Adult patients with clinically and radiologically documented nosocomial pneumonia were enrolled in a multicenter, randomized, open-label study comparing intravenous Levofloxacin (750 mg once daily) followed by oral Levofloxacin (750 mg once daily) for a total of 7–15 days to intravenous imipenem/cilastatin (500–1000 mg every 6–8 hours daily) followed by oral ciprofloxacin (750 mg every 12 hours daily) for a total of 7–15 days. Levofloxacin-treated patients received an average of 7 days of intravenous therapy (range: 1–16 days); comparator-treated patients received an average of 8 days of intravenous therapy (range: 1–19 days).
  • Overall, in the clinically and microbiologically evaluable population, adjunctive therapy was empirically initiated at study entry in 56 of 93 (60.2%) patients in the Levofloxacin arm and 53 of 94 (56.4%) patients in the comparator arm. The average duration of adjunctive therapy was 7 days in the Levofloxacin arm and 7 days in the comparator. In clinically and microbiologically evaluable patients with documented Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection, 15 of 17 (88.2%) received ceftazidime (N=11) or piperacillin/tazobactam (N=4) in the Levofloxacin arm and 16 of 17 (94.1%) received an aminoglycoside in the comparator arm. Overall, in clinically and microbiologically evaluable patients, vancomycin was added to the treatment regimen of 37 of 93 (39.8%) patients in the Levofloxacin arm and 28 of 94 (29.8%) patients in the comparator arm for suspected methicillin-resistant S. aureus infection.
  • Clinical success rates in clinically and microbiologicallyevaluable patients at the post-therapy visit (primary study endpoint assessed on day 3–15 after completing therapy) were 58.1% for Levofloxacin and 60.6% for comparator. The 95% CI for the difference of response rates (Levofloxacin minus comparator) was [-17.2, 12.0]. The microbiological eradication rates at the posttherapy visit were 66.7% for Levofloxacin and 60.6% for comparator. The 95% CI for the difference of eradication rates (Levofloxacin minus comparator) was [-8.3, 20.3]. Clinical success and microbiological eradication rates by pathogen are detailed in Table 11.
This image is provided by the National Library of Medicine.
Community-Acquired Pneumonia: 7–14 day Treatment Regimen
  • Adult inpatients and outpatients with a diagnosis of community-acquired bacterial pneumonia were evaluated in 2 pivotal clinical studies. In the first study, 590 patients were enrolled in a prospective, multi-center, unblinded randomized trial comparing Levofloxacin 500 mg once daily orally or intravenously for 7 to 14 days to ceftriaxone 1 to 2 grams intravenously once or in equally divided doses twice daily followed by cefuroxime axetil 500 mg orally twice daily for a total of 7 to 14 days. Patients assigned to treatment with the control regimen were allowed to receive erythromycin (or doxycycline if intolerant of erythromycin) if an infection due to atypical pathogens was suspected or proven. Clinical and microbiologic evaluations were performed during treatment, 5 to 7 days posttherapy, and 3 to 4 weeks posttherapy. Clinical success (cure plus improvement) with Levofloxacin at 5 to 7 days posttherapy, the primary efficacy variable in this study, was superior (95%) to the control group (83%). The 95% CI for the difference of response rates (Levofloxacin minus comparator) was [-6, 19]. In the second study, 264 patients were enrolled in a prospective, multi-center, non-comparative trial of 500 mg Levofloxacin administered orally or intravenously once daily for 7 to 14 days. Clinical success for clinically evaluable patients was 93%. For both studies, the clinical success rate in patients with atypical pneumonia due to Chlamydophila pneumoniae, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, and Legionella pneumophila were 96%, 96%, and 70%, respectively. Microbiologic eradication rates across both studies are presented in Table 12.
This image is provided by the National Library of Medicine.
This image is provided by the National Library of Medicine.
  • Not all isolates were resistant to all antimicrobial classes tested. Success and eradication rates are summarized in Table 14.
This image is provided by the National Library of Medicine.
Community-Acquired Pneumonia: 5-day Treatment Regimen
  • To evaluate the safety and efficacy of the higher dose and shorter course of Levofloxacin, 528 outpatient and hospitalized adults with clinically and radiologically determined mild to severe community-acquired pneumonia were evaluated in a double-blind, randomized, prospective, multicenter study comparing Levofloxacin 750 mg, IV or orally, every day for five days or Levofloxacin 500 mg IV or orally, every day for 10 days.
  • Clinical success rates (cure plus improvement) in the clinically evaluable population were 90.9% in the Levofloxacin 750 mg group and 91.1% in the Levofloxacin 500 mg group. The 95% CI for the difference of response rates (Levofloxacin 750 minus Levofloxacin 500) was [-5.9, 5.4]. In the clinically evaluable population (31–38 days after enrollment) pneumonia was observed in 7 out of 151 patients in the Levofloxacin 750 mg group and 2 out of 147 patients in the Levofloxacin 500 mg group. Given the small numbers observed, the significance of this finding cannot be determined statistically. The microbiological efficacy of the 5-day regimen was documented for infections listed in Table 15.
This image is provided by the National Library of Medicine.
Acute Bacterial Sinusitis: 5-day and 10–14 day Treatment Regimens
  • Levofloxacin is approved for the treatment of acute bacterial sinusitis (ABS) using either 750 mg by mouth × 5 days or 500 mg by mouth once daily × 10–14 days. To evaluate the safety and efficacy of a high dose short course of Levofloxacin, 780 outpatient adults with clinically and radiologically determined acute bacterial sinusitis were evaluated in a double-blind, randomized, prospective, multicenter study comparing Levofloxacin 750 mg by mouth once daily for five days to Levofloxacin 500 mg by mouth once daily for 10 days.
  • Clinical success rates (defined as complete or partial resolution of the pre-treatment signs and symptoms of ABS to such an extent that no further antibiotic treatment was deemed necessary) in the microbiologically evaluable population were 91.4% (139/152) in the Levofloxacin 750 mg group and 88.6% (132/149) in the Levofloxacin 500 mg group at the test-of-cure (TOC) visit (95% CI [-4.2, 10.0] for Levofloxacin 750 mg minus Levofloxacin 500 mg).
  • Rates of clinical success by pathogen in the microbiologically evaluable population who had specimens obtained by antral tap at study entry showed comparable results for the five- and ten-day regimens at the test-of-cure visit 22 days post treatment (see TABLE 16).
This image is provided by the National Library of Medicine.
Complicated Skin and Skin Structure Infections
  • Three hundred ninety-nine patients were enrolled in an open-label, randomized, comparative study for complicated skin and skin structure infections. The patients were randomized to receive either Levofloxacin 750 mg once daily (IV followed by oral), or an approved comparator for a median of 10 ± 4.7 days. As is expected in complicated skin and skin structure infections, surgical procedures were performed in the Levofloxacin and comparator groups. Surgery (incision and drainage or debridement) was performed on 45% of the Levofloxacin-treated patients and 44% of the comparator-treated patients, either shortly before or during antibiotic treatment and formed an integral part of therapy for this indication.
  • Among those who could be evaluated clinically 2–5 days after completion of study drug, overall success rates (improved or cured) were 116/138 (84.1%) for patients treated with Levofloxacin and 106/132 (80.3%) for patients treated with the comparator.
  • Success rates varied with the type of diagnosis ranging from 68% in patients with infected ulcers to 90% in patients with infected wounds and abscesses. These rates were equivalent to those seen with comparator drugs.
Chronic Bacterial Prostatitis
This image is provided by the National Library of Medicine.
  • Eradication rates for S. epidermidis when found with other co-pathogens are consistent with rates seen in pure isolates.
  • Clinical success (cure + improvement with no need for further antibiotic therapy) rates in microbiologically evaluable population 5–18 days after completion of therapy were 75.0% for Levofloxacin-treated patients and 72.8% for ciprofloxacin-treated patients (95% CI [-8.87, 13.27] for Levofloxacin minus ciprofloxacin). Clinical long-term success (24–45 days after completion of therapy) rates were 66.7% for the Levofloxacin-treated patients and 76.9% for the ciprofloxacin-treated patients (95% CI [-23.40, 2.89] for Levofloxacin minus ciprofloxacin).
Complicated Urinary Tract Infections and Acute Pyelonephritis: 5-day Treatment Regimen
  • To evaluate the safety and efficacy of the higher dose and shorter course of Levofloxacin, 1109 patients with cUTI and AP were enrolled in a randomized, double-blind, multicenter clinical trial conducted in the US from November 2004 to April 2006 comparing Levofloxacin 750 mg IV or orally once daily for 5 days (546 patients) with ciprofloxacin 400 mg IV or 500 mg orally twice daily for 10 days (563 patients). Patients with AP complicated by underlying renal diseases or conditions such as complete obstruction, surgery, transplantation, concurrent infection or congenital malformation were excluded. Efficacy was measured by bacteriologic eradication of the baseline organism(s) at the post-therapy visit in patients with a pathogen identified at baseline. The post-therapy (test-of-cure) visit occurred 10 to 14 days after the last active dose of Levofloxacin and 5 to 9 days after the last dose of active ciprofloxacin.
  • The bacteriologic cure rates overall for Levofloxacin and control at the test-of-cure (TOC) visit for the group of all patients with a documented pathogen at baseline (modified intent to treat or mITT) and the group of patients in the mITT population who closely followed the protocol (microbiologically Evaluable) are summarized in Table 18.
This image is provided by the National Library of Medicine.

Microbiologic eradication rates in the Microbiologically Evaluable population at TOC for individual pathogens recovered from patients randomized to Levofloxacin treatment are presented in Table 19.

This image is provided by the National Library of Medicine.
Complicated Urinary Tract Infections and Acute Pyelonephritis: 10-day Treatment Regimen
  • To evaluate the safety and efficacy of the 250 mg dose, 10 day regimen of Levofloxacin, 567 patients with uncomplicated UTI, mild-to-moderate cUTI, and mild-to-moderate AP were enrolled in a randomized, double-blind, multicenter clinical trial conducted in the US from June 1993 to January 1995 comparing Levofloxacin 250 mg orally once daily for 10 days (285 patients) with ciprofloxacin 500 mg orally twice daily for 10 days (282 patients). Patients with a resistant pathogen, recurrent UTI, women over age 55 years, and with an indwelling catheter were initially excluded, prior to protocol amendment which took place after 30% of enrollment. Microbiological efficacy was measured by bacteriologic eradication of the baseline organism(s) at 1–12 days post-therapy in patients with a pathogen identified at baseline.
  • The bacteriologic cure rates overall for Levofloxacin and control at the test-of-cure (TOC) visit for the group of all patients with a documented pathogen at baseline (modified intent to treat or mITT) and the group of patients in the mITT population who closely followed the protocol (Microbiologically Evaluable) are summarized in Table 20.
This image is provided by the National Library of Medicine.
Inhalational Anthrax (Post-Exposure)
  • The effectiveness of Levofloxacin for this indication is based on plasma concentrations achieved in humans, a surrogate endpoint reasonably likely to predict clinical benefit. Levofloxacin has not been tested in humans for the post-exposure prevention of inhalation anthrax. The mean plasma concentrations of Levofloxacin associated with a statistically significant improvement in survival over placebo in the rhesus monkey model of inhalational anthrax are reached or exceeded in adult and pediatric patients receiving the recommended oral and intravenous dosage regimens.
  • Levofloxacin pharmacokinetics have been evaluated in adult and pediatric patients. The mean (± SD) steady state peak plasma concentration in human adults receiving 500 mg orally or intravenously once daily is 5.7 ± 1.4 and 6.4 ± 0.8 mcg/mL, respectively; and the corresponding total plasma exposure (AUC0–24) is 47.5 ± 6.7 and 54.6 ± 11.1 mcg.h/mL, respectively. The predicted steady-state pharmacokinetic parameters in pediatric patients ranging in age from 6 months to 17 years receiving 8 mg/kg orally every 12 hours (not to exceed 250 mg per dose) were calculated to be comparable to those observed in adults receiving 500 mg orally once daily.
  • In adults, the safety of Levofloxacin for treatment durations of up to 28 days is well characterized. However, information pertaining to extended use at 500 mg daily up to 60 days is limited. Prolonged Levofloxacin therapy in adults should only be used when the benefit outweighs the risk.
  • In pediatric patients, the safety of levofloxacin for treatment durations of more than 14 days has not been studied. An increased incidence of musculoskeletal adverse events (arthralgia, arthritis, tendinopathy, gait abnormality) compared to controls has been observed in clinical studies with treatment duration of up to 14 days. Long-term safety data, including effects on cartilage, following the administration of levofloxacin to pediatric patients is limited.
  • A placebo-controlled animal study in rhesus monkeys exposed to an inhaled mean dose of 49 LD50 (~2.7 × 106) spores (range 17 – 118 LD50) of B. anthracis (Ames strain) was conducted. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of levofloxacin for the anthrax strain used in this study was 0.125 mcg/mL. In the animals studied, mean plasma concentrations of levofloxacin achieved at expected Tmax (1 hour post-dose) following oral dosing to steady state ranged from 2.79 to 4.87 mcg/mL. Steady state trough concentrations at 24 hours post-dose ranged from 0.107 to 0.164 mcg/mL. Mean (SD) steady state AUC0–24 was 33.4 ± 3.2 mcg.h/mL (range 30.4 to 36.0 mcg.h/mL). Mortality due to anthrax for animals that received a 30 day regimen of oral Levofloxacin beginning 24 hrs post exposure was significantly lower (1/10), compared to the placebo group (9/10) [P=0.0011, 2-sided Fisher's Exact Test]. The one levofloxacin treated animal that died of anthrax did so following the 30-day drug administration period.
Plague
  • Efficacy studies of Levofloxacin could not be conducted in humans with pneumonic plague for ethical and feasibility reasons. Therefore, approval of this indication was based on an efficacy study conducted in animals.
  • The mean plasma concentrations of Levofloxacin associated with a statistically significant improvement in survival over placebo in an African green monkey model of pneumonic plague are reached or exceeded in adult and pediatric patients receiving the recommended oral and intravenous dosage regimens.
  • Levofloxacin pharmacokinetics have been evaluated in adult and pediatric patients. The mean (± SD) steady state peak plasma concentration in human adults receiving 500 mg orally or intravenously once daily is 5.7 ± 1.4 and 6.4 ± 0.8 mcg/mL, respectively; and the corresponding total plasma exposure (AUC0–24) is 47.5 ± 6.7 and 54.6 ± 11.1 mcg.h/mL, respectively. The predicted steady-state pharmacokinetic parameters in pediatric patients ranging in age from 6 months to 17 years receiving 8 mg/kg orally every 12 hours (not to exceed 250 mg per dose) were calculated to be comparable to those observed in adults receiving 500 mg orally once daily.
  • A placebo-controlled animal study in African green monkeys exposed to an inhaled mean dose of 65 LD50 (range 3 to 145 LD50) of Yersinia pestis (CO92 strain) was conducted. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of levofloxacin for the Y. pestis strain used in this study was 0.03 mcg/mL. Mean plasma concentrations of levofloxacin achieved at the end of a single 30-min infusion ranged from 2.84 to 3.50 mcg/mL in African green monkeys. Trough concentrations at 24 hours post-dose ranged from <0.03 to 0.06 mcg/mL. Mean (SD) AUC0–24 was 11.9 (3.1) mcg.h/mL (range 9.50 to 16.86 mcg.h/mL). Animals were randomized to receive either a 10-day regimen of i.v. Levofloxacin or placebo beginning within 6 hrs of the onset of telemetered fever (≥ 39°C for more than 1 hour). Mortality in the Levofloxacin group was significantly lower (1/17) compared to the placebo group (7/7) [p<0.001, Fisher's Exact Test; exact 95% confidence interval (-99.9%, -55.5%) for the difference in mortality]. One levofloxacin-treated animal was euthanized on Day 9 post-exposure to Y. pestis due to a gastric complication; it had a blood culture positive for Y. pestis on Day 3 and all subsequent daily blood cultures from Day 4 through Day 7 were negative.

How Supplied

  • Levofloxacin Oral Solution
  • Levofloxacin Oral Solution is supplied in a 16 oz. multi-use bottle (NDC 10147-0941-6). Each bottle contains 480 mL of the 25 mg/mL levofloxacin oral solution.
  • Levofloxacin Oral Solution is manufactured for Patriot Pharmaceuticals, LLC, Horsham, PA 19044 by Janssen Pharmaceutica N.V., Beerse, Belgium.

Storage

  • Levofloxacin Oral Solution should be stored at 25°C (77°F); excursions permitted to 15° – 30°C (59° to 86°F) [refer to USP controlled room temperature].

Images

Drug Images

No image.jpg

Drug Name:
Ingredient(s):
Imprint:
Dosage: {{{dosageValue}}} {{{dosageUnit}}}
Color(s):
Shape:
Size (mm):
Score:
NDC:

Drug Label Author:

This pill image is provided by the National Library of Medicine's PillBox.

Package and Label Display Panel

Levofloxacin package01.jpeg
This image of the FDA label is provided by the National Library of Medicine.

Patient Counseling Information

Antibacterial Resistance
  • Antibacterial drugs including Levofloxacin should only be used to treat bacterial infections. They do not treat viral infections (e.g., the common cold). When Levofloxacin is prescribed to treat a bacterial infection, patients should be told that although it is common to feel better early in the course of therapy, the medication should be taken exactly as directed. Skipping doses or not completing the full course of therapy may (1) decrease the effectiveness of the immediate treatment and (2) increase the likelihood that bacteria will develop resistance and will not be treatable by Levofloxacin or other antibacterial drugs in the future.
Administration with Food, Fluids, and Concomitant Medications
  • Levofloxacin Oral Solution should be taken 1 hour before or 2 hours after eating. The oral solution should be taken at the same time each day.
  • Patients should drink fluids liberally while taking Levofloxacin to avoid formation of a highly concentrated urine and crystal formation in the urine.
  • Antacids containing magnesium, or aluminum, as well as sucralfate, metal cations such as iron, and multivitamin preparations with zinc or didanosine should be taken at least two hours before or two hours after oral Levofloxacin administration.
Serious and Potentially Serious Adverse Reactions
  • Patients should be informed of the following serious adverse reactions that have been associated with Levofloxacin or other fluoroquinolone use:
  • Tendon Disorders: Patients should contact their healthcare provider if they experience pain, swelling, or inflammation of a tendon, or weakness or inability to use one of their joints; rest and refrain from exercise; and discontinue Levofloxacin treatment. The risk of severe tendon disorders with fluoroquinolones is higher in older patients usually over 60 years of age, in patients taking corticosteroid drugs, and in patients with kidney, heart or lung transplants.
  • Exacerbation of Myasthenia Gravis: Patients should inform their physician of any history of myasthenia gravis. Patients should notify their physician if they experience any symptoms of muscle weakness, including respiratory difficulties.
  • Hypersensitivity Reactions: Patients should be informed that Levofloxacin can cause hypersensitivity reactions, even following the first dose. Patients should discontinue the drug at the first sign of a skin rash, hives or other skin reactions, a rapid heartbeat, difficulty in swallowing or breathing, any swelling suggesting angioedema (e.g., swelling of the lips, tongue, face, tightness of the throat, hoarseness), or other symptoms of an allergic reaction.
  • Hepatotoxicity: Severe hepatotoxicity (including acute hepatitis and fatal events) has been reported in patients taking Levofloxacin. Patients should inform their physician and be instructed to discontinue Levofloxacin treatment immediately if they experience any signs or symptoms of liver injury including: loss of appetite, nausea, vomiting, fever, weakness, tiredness, right upper quadrant tenderness, itching, yellowing of the skin and eyes, light colored bowel movements or dark colored urine.
  • Convulsions: Convulsions have been reported in patients taking fluoroquinolones, including Levofloxacin. Patients should notify their physician before taking this drug if they have a history of convulsions.
  • Neurologic Adverse Effects (e.g., dizziness, lightheadedness, increased intracranial pressure): Patients should know how they react to Levofloxacin before they operate an automobile or machinery or engage in other activities requiring mental alertness and coordination. Patients should notify their physician if persistent headache with or without blurred vision occurs.
  • Diarrhea: Diarrhea is a common problem caused by antibiotics which usually ends when the antibiotic is discontinued. Sometimes after starting treatment with antibiotics, patients can develop watery and bloody stools (with or without stomach cramps and fever) even as late as two or more months after having taken the last dose of the antibiotic. If this occurs, patients should contact their physician as soon as possible.
  • Peripheral Neuropathies: Patients should be informed that peripheral neuropathy has been associated with Levofloxacin use. Symptoms may occur soon after initiation of therapy and may be irreversible. If symptoms of peripheral neuropathy including pain, burning, tingling, numbness, and/or weakness develop, patients should immediately discontinue treatment and contact their physician.
  • Prolongation of the QT Interval: Patients should inform their physician of any personal or family history of QT prolongation or proarrhythmic conditions such as hypokalemia, bradycardia, or recent myocardial ischemia; if they are taking any Class IA (quinidine, procainamide), or Class III (amiodarone, sotalol) antiarrhythmic agents. Patients should notify their physicians if they have any symptoms of prolongation of the QT interval, including prolonged heart palpitations or a loss of consciousness.
  • Musculoskeletal Disorders in Pediatric Patients: Parents should inform their child's physician if their child has a history of joint-related problems before taking this drug. Parents of pediatric patients should also notify their child's physician of any tendon or joint-related problems that occur during or following Levofloxacin therapy.
  • Photosensitivity/Phototoxicity: Patients should be advised that photosensitivity/phototoxicity has been reported in patients receiving fluoroquinolone antibiotics. Patients should minimize or avoid exposure to natural or artificial sunlight (tanning beds or UVA/B treatment) while taking fluoroquinolones. If patients need to be outdoors when taking fluoroquinolones, they should wear loose-fitting clothes that protect skin from sun exposure and discuss other sun protection measures with their physician. If a sunburn like reaction or skin eruption occurs, patients should contact their physician.
Drug Interactions with Insulin, Oral Hypoglycemic Agents, and Warfarin
  • Patients should be informed that if they are diabetic and are being treated with insulin or an oral hypoglycemic agent and a hypoglycemic reaction occurs, they should discontinue Levofloxacin and consult a physician.
  • Patients should be informed that concurrent administration of warfarin and Levofloxacin has been associated with increases of the International Normalized Ratio (INR) or prothrombin time and clinical episodes of bleeding. Patients should notify their physician if they are taking warfarin, be monitored for evidence of bleeding, and also have their anticoagulation tests closely monitored while taking warfarin concomitantly.
Plague and Anthrax Studies
  • Patients given Levofloxacin for these conditions should be informed that efficacy studies could not be conducted in humans for ethical and feasibility reasons. Therefore, approval for these conditions was based on efficacy studies conducted in animals.
  • Active Ingredient Made in Japan
  • Finished Product Manufactured by:
  • Janssen Pharmaceutica N.V., Beerse, Belgium.
  • Manufactured for:
  • Patriot Pharmaceuticals, LLC, Horsham, PA 19044.
  • © Patriot Pharmaceuticals, LLC
  • Issued June 2014

Precautions with Alcohol

  • Alcohol-Levofloxacin interaction has not been established. Talk to your doctor about the effects of taking alcohol with this medication.

Brand Names

  • Levaquin®
  • Quixin®
  • Iquix®

Look-Alike Drug Names

  • Levaquin ® — Lariam ®[1]
  • levofloxacin ® — levetiracetam ®[1]
  • levofloxacin ® — Levophed ®[1]

Drug Shortage Status

Price

References

The contents of this FDA label are provided by the National Library of Medicine.

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 "http://www.ismp.org". External link in |title= (help)