Pneumonia pathophysiology

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Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1]; Associate Editor(s)-in-Chief: Hamid Qazi, MD, BSc [2], Priyamvada Singh, M.D. [3]

Overview

Bacteria and fungi typically enter the lung with inhalation. Once inside the alveoli, these microbes travel into the spaces between the cells and also between adjacent alveoli through connecting pores. This invasion triggers the immune system response by sending white blood cells responsible for attacking microorganisms (neutrophils) to the lungs resulting in manifestations of pneumonia.

Pathophysiology

Mode of Transmission

1. Inhalation of Aerosolized Droplets
2. Microaspiration of Oropharyngeal Contents
3. Blood-Borne or Systemic Infection
4. Trauma or Local Spread
  • Pneumonia can occur after a pulmonary procedure or a penetrating trauma to the lungs.
  • A local spread of a hepatic abscess can also lead to pneumonia.

Agent Specific Virulence Factors

Several strategies are evolved to evade host defence mechanisms and facilitate spreading before establishing an infection.

  • Streptococcus pneumoniae possesses pneumolysin that aid the bacteria during colonization, by facilitating adherence to the host,[4] during invasion by damaging host cells,[5] and during infection by interfering with the host immune response.[6]

Host Factors

1. Diminished Mucociliary Clearance
2. Impaired Cough Reflex
3. Defective Immune System

Microscopic Pathology

The upper panel shows a normal lung under a microscope. The white spaces are alveoli that contain air.Lower panel shows a lung with pneumonia under a microscope. The alveoli are filled with inflammation and debris.


References

  1. 1.0 1.1 Wunderink, RG.; Waterer, GW. (2004). "Community-acquired pneumonia: pathophysiology and host factors with focus on possible new approaches to management of lower respiratory tract infections". Infect Dis Clin North Am. 18 (4): 743–59, vii. doi:10.1016/j.idc.2004.07.004. PMID 15555822. Unknown parameter |month= ignored (help)
  2. 2.0 2.1 Shemer-Avni, Y.; Lieberman, D. (1995). "Chlamydia pneumoniae-induced ciliostasis in ciliated bronchial epithelial cells". J Infect Dis. 171 (5): 1274–8. PMID 7751703. Unknown parameter |month= ignored (help)
  3. 3.0 3.1 Kannan, TR.; Baseman, JB. (2006). "ADP-ribosylating and vacuolating cytotoxin of Mycoplasma pneumoniae represents unique virulence determinant among bacterial pathogens". Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 103 (17): 6724–9. doi:10.1073/pnas.0510644103. PMID 16617115. Unknown parameter |month= ignored (help)
  4. Rubins, JB (December 1998). "Pneumolysin in pneumococcal adherence and colonization". Microbial pathogenesis. 25 (6): 337–42. doi:10.1006/mpat.1998.0239. PMID 9895272. Unknown parameter |coauthors= ignored (help)
  5. Rubins, JB (January 1998). "Pneumolysin: a multifunctional pneumococcal virulence factor". The Journal of laboratory and clinical medicine. 131 (1): 21–7. PMID 9452123. Unknown parameter |coauthors= ignored (help)
  6. Cockeran, R (June 2002). "The role of pneumolysin in the pathogenesis of Streptococcus pneumoniae infection". Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases. 15 (3): 235–9. PMID 12015456. Unknown parameter |coauthors= ignored (help)
  7. Strieter, RM.; Belperio, JA.; Keane, MP. (2003). "Host innate defenses in the lung: the role of cytokines". Curr Opin Infect Dis. 16 (3): 193–8. doi:10.1097/01.qco.0000073766.11390.0e. PMID 12821807. Unknown parameter |month= ignored (help)
  8. Mason, CM.; Nelson, S. (2005). "Pulmonary host defenses and factors predisposing to lung infection". Clin Chest Med. 26 (1): 11–7. doi:10.1016/j.ccm.2004.10.018. PMID 15802161. Unknown parameter |month= ignored (help)
  9. Morimoto, S.; Okaishi, K.; Onishi, M.; Katsuya, T.; Yang, J.; Okuro, M.; Sakurai, S.; Onishi, T.; Ogihara, T. (2002). "Deletion allele of the angiotensin-converting enzyme gene as a risk factor for pneumonia in elderly patients". Am J Med. 112 (2): 89–94. PMID 11835945. Unknown parameter |month= ignored (help)
  10. Rigat, B.; Hubert, C.; Alhenc-Gelas, F.; Cambien, F.; Corvol, P.; Soubrier, F. (1990). "An insertion/deletion polymorphism in the angiotensin I-converting enzyme gene accounting for half the variance of serum enzyme levels". J Clin Invest. 86 (4): 1343–6. doi:10.1172/JCI114844. PMID 1976655. Unknown parameter |month= ignored (help)
  11. Rubins, JB (December 1998). "Pneumolysin in pneumococcal adherence and colonization". Microbial pathogenesis. 25 (6): 337–42. doi:10.1006/mpat.1998.0239. PMID 9895272. Unknown parameter |coauthors= ignored (help)
  12. Rubins, JB (January 1998). "Pneumolysin: a multifunctional pneumococcal virulence factor". The Journal of laboratory and clinical medicine. 131 (1): 21–7. PMID 9452123. Unknown parameter |coauthors= ignored (help)
  13. Cockeran, R (June 2002). "The role of pneumolysin in the pathogenesis of Streptococcus pneumoniae infection". Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases. 15 (3): 235–9. PMID 12015456. Unknown parameter |coauthors= ignored (help)



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