Pneumonia physical examination

Jump to: navigation, search

Pneumonia Microchapters

Home

Patient Information

Overview

Historical Perspective

Classification

Pathophysiology

Causes

Differentiating Pneumonia from other Diseases

Epidemiology and Demographics

Risk Factors

Natural History, Complications and Prognosis

Diagnosis

Diagnostic Criteria

Diagnostic Algorithm

History and Symptoms

Physical Examination

Laboratory Findings

Chest X Ray

CT

Other Imaging Findings

Treatment

Medical Therapy

Prevention

Cost-Effectiveness of Therapy

Future or Investigational Therapies

Case Studies

Case #1

Pneumonia physical examination On the Web

Most recent articles

Most cited articles

Review articles

CME Programs

Powerpoint slides

Images

American Roentgen Ray Society Images of Pneumonia physical examination

All Images
X-rays
Echo & Ultrasound
CT Images
MRI

Ongoing Trials at Clinical Trials.gov

US National Guidelines Clearinghouse

NICE Guidance

FDA on Pneumonia physical examination

CDC onPneumonia physical examination

Pneumonia physical examination in the news

Blogs on Pneumonia physical examination

Directions to Hospitals Treating Pneumonia

Risk calculators and risk factors for Pneumonia physical examination

Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1]; Associate Editor(s)-in-Chief: Hamid Qazi, MD, BSc [2], Priyamvada Singh, M.D. [3]

Overview

Physical examination may reveal fever or sometimes low body temperature, an increased respiratory rate, low blood pressure, a fast heart rate, or a low oxygen saturation, which is the amount of oxygen in the blood as indicated by either pulse oximetry or blood gas analysis. Patients who have difficulty breathing, who are confused, or who have cyanosis (blue-tinged skin) require immediate attention. Auscultation findings include lack of normal breath sounds, the presence of crackling sounds (rales), or increased loudness of whispered speech (whispered pectoriloquy) with areas of the lung that are stiff and full of fluid, called consolidation. Vital signs are useful in determining the severity of illness and have predictive values. However, a high degree of suspicion should be kept in elderly as the presentation could be subtle in them.

Physical Examination

The physical exam findings for pneumonia are as follows:[1][2][3]

  • Physical examination of patients with pneumonia is usually remarkable for: shortness of breath, cough, fever, and difficulty breathing.

Appearance of the Patient

  • Patients with pneumonia usually appear normal or in distress.

Vital Signs

Criteria for Tachypnea[4]
Age Breaths/min
< 2 months > 60
2-12 months > 50
1- 5 years > 40
> 5 years > 20

Skin

  • Skin examination of patients with pneumonia is usually normal.

HEENT

  • HEENT examination of patients with pneumonia is usually normal.

Neck

  • Neck examination of patients with pneumonia is usually normal.

Lungs

Palpation

  • Increased tactile fremitus

Percussion

  • Dullness on percussion

Auscultation

Heart

  • Cardiovascular examination of patients with pneumonia is usually normal.

Abdomen

Abdominal examination of patients with pneumonia is usually normal.

Back

  • Back examination of patients with pneumonia is usually normal.

Genitourinary

  • Genitourinary examination of patients with pneumonia is usually normal.

Neuromuscular

  • Neuromuscular examination of patients with pneumonia is usually normal.

Extremities

  • Extremities examination of patients with pneumonia is usually normal.

References

  1. Musher, Daniel M.; Thorner, Anna R. (2014). "Community-Acquired Pneumonia". New England Journal of Medicine. 371 (17): 1619–1628. doi:10.1056/NEJMra1312885. ISSN 0028-4793.
  2. "WHO Pneumonia Fact Sheets".
  3. Mandell, L. A.; Wunderink, R. G.; Anzueto, A.; Bartlett, J. G.; Campbell, G. D.; Dean, N. C.; Dowell, S. F.; File, T. M.; Musher, D. M.; Niederman, M. S.; Torres, A.; Whitney, C. G. (2007). "Infectious Diseases Society of America/American Thoracic Society Consensus Guidelines on the Management of Community-Acquired Pneumonia in Adults". Clinical Infectious Diseases. 44 (Supplement 2): S27–S72. doi:10.1086/511159. ISSN 1058-4838.
  4. Russell, G. (2001). "Community acquired pneumonia". Archives of Disease in Childhood. 85 (6): 445–446. doi:10.1136/adc.85.6.445. ISSN 0003-9888.



Linked-in.jpg