Olanzapine (oral)

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Olanzapine (oral)
Black Box Warning
Adult Indications & Dosage
Pediatric Indications & Dosage
Contraindications
Warnings & Precautions
Adverse Reactions
Drug Interactions
Use in Specific Populations
Administration & Monitoring
Overdosage
Pharmacology
Clinical Studies
How Supplied
Images
Patient Counseling Information
Precautions with Alcohol
Brand Names
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Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1]; Associate Editor(s)-in-Chief: Vignesh Ponnusamy, M.B.B.S. [2]

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Black Box Warning

WARNING: INCREASED MORTALITY IN ELDERLY PATIENTS WITH DEMENTIA-RELATED PSYCHOSIS
See full prescribing information for complete Boxed Warning.
  • Elderly patients with dementia-related psychosis treated with antipsychotic drugs are at an increased risk of death. Analyses of seventeen placebo-controlled trials (modal duration of 10 weeks), largely in patients taking atypical antipsychotic drugs, revealed a risk of death in drug-treated patients of between 1.6 to 1.7 times the risk of death in placebo-treated patients. Over the course of a typical 10-week controlled trial, the rate of death in drug-treated patients was about 4.5%, compared to a rate of about 2.6% in the placebo group. Although the causes of death were varied, most of the deaths appeared to be either cardiovascular (e.g., heart failure, sudden death) or infectious (e.g., pneumonia) in nature. Observational studies suggest that, similar to atypical antipsychotic drugs, treatment with conventional antipsychotic drugs may increase mortality. The extent to which the findings of increased mortality in observational studies may be attributed to the antipsychotic drug as opposed to some characteristic(s) of the patients is not clear. Olanzapine is not approved for the treatment of patients with dementia-related psychosis.
  • When using olanzapine and fluoxetine in combination, also refer to the Boxed Warning section of the package insert for Symbyax.

Overview

Olanzapine (oral) is an atypical antipsychotic that is FDA approved for the {{{indicationType}}} of schizophrenia, bipolar I disorder (manic or mixed episodes), depressive episodes associated with bipolar I disorder in adults. There is a Black Box Warning for this drug as shown here. Common adverse reactions include postural hypotension, constipation, weight gain, dizziness, personality disorder, akathisia, sedation, headache, increased appetite, abdominal pain, pain in extremity, fatigue, dry mouth, asthenia, somnolence, tremor.

Adult Indications and Dosage

FDA-Labeled Indications and Dosage (Adult)

Schizophrenia
  • Oral olanzapine should be administered on a once-a-day schedule without regard to meals, generally beginning with 5 to 10 mg initially, with a target dose of 10 mg/day within several days. Further dosage adjustments, if indicated, should 4 generally occur at intervals of not less than 1 week, since steady state for olanzapine would not be achieved for approximately 1 week in the typical patient. When dosage adjustments are necessary, dose increments/decrements of 5 mg QD are recommended.
  • Efficacy in schizophrenia was demonstrated in a dose range of 10 to 15 mg/day in clinical trials. However, doses above 10 mg/day were not demonstrated to be more efficacious than the 10 mg/day dose. An increase to a dose greater than the target dose of 10 mg/day (i.e., to a dose of 15 mg/day or greater) is recommended only after clinical assessment. Olanzapine is not indicated for use in doses above 20 mg/day.
  • Dosing in Special Populations — The recommended starting dose is 5 mg in patients who are debilitated, who have a predisposition to hypotensive reactions, who otherwise exhibit a combination of factors that may result in slower metabolism of olanzapine (e.g., nonsmoking female patients ≥65 years of age), or who may be more pharmacodynamically sensitive to olanzapine. When indicated, dose escalation should be performed with caution in these patients.
  • Maintenance Treatment —The effectiveness of oral olanzapine, 10 mg/day to 20 mg/day, in maintaining treatment response in schizophrenic patients who had been stable on olanzapine for approximately 8 weeks and were then followed for relapse has been demonstrated in a placebo-controlled trial. The physician who elects to use olanzapine for extended periods should periodically reevaluate the long-term usefulness of the drug for the individual patient.
Bipolar I Disorder (Manic or Mixed Episodes)
  • Dose Selection for Monotherapy — Oral olanzapine should be administered on a once-a-day schedule without regard to meals, generally beginning with 10 or 15 mg. Dosage adjustments, if indicated, should generally occur at intervals of not less than 24 hours, reflecting the procedures in the placebo-controlled trials. When dosage adjustments are necessary, dose increments/decrements of 5 mg QD are recommended.
  • Short-term (3-4 weeks) antimanic efficacy was demonstrated in a dose range of 5 mg to 20 mg/day in clinical trials. The safety of doses above 20 mg/day has not been evaluated in clinical trials.
  • Maintenance Monotherapy — The benefit of maintaining bipolar I patients on monotherapy with oral olanzapine at a dose of 5 to 20 mg/day, after achieving a responder status for an average duration of 2 weeks, was demonstrated in a controlled trial. The physician who elects to use olanzapine for extended periods should periodically reevaluate the long-term usefulness of the drug for the individual patient.
  • Dose Selection for Adjunctive Treatment — When administered as adjunctive treatment to lithium or valproate, oral olanzapine dosing should generally begin with 10 mg once-a-day without regard to meals.
  • Antimanic efficacy was demonstrated in a dose range of 5 mg to 20 mg/day in clinical trials. The safety of doses above 20 mg/day has not been evaluated in clinical trials.
Olanzapine and Fluoxetine in Combination: Depressive Episodes Associated with Bipolar I Disorder
  • Oral olanzapine should be administered in combination with fluoxetine once daily in the evening, without regard to meals, generally beginning with 5 mg of oral olanzapine and 20 mg of fluoxetine. Dosage adjustments, if indicated, can be made according to efficacy and tolerability within dose ranges of oral olanzapine 5 to 12.5 mg and fluoxetine 20 to 50 mg. Antidepressant efficacy was demonstrated with olanzapine and fluoxetine in combination in adult patients with a dose range of olanzapine 6 to 12 mg and fluoxetine 25 to 50 mg. Safety of co-administration of doses above 18 mg olanzapine with 75 mg fluoxetine has not been evaluated in clinical studies.
  • Safety and efficacy of olanzapine and fluoxetine in combination was determined in clinical trials supporting approval of Symbyax (fixed dose combination of olanzapine and fluoxetine). Symbyax is dosed between 3 mg/25 mg (olanzapine/fluoxetine) per day and 12 mg/50 mg (olanzapine/fluoxetine) per day. The following table demonstrates the appropriate individual component doses of olanzapine and fluoxetine versus Symbyax. Dosage adjustments, if indicated, should be made with the individual components according to efficacy and tolerability.
File:Olanzapine (oral)01.png
This image is provided by the National Library of Medicine.
  • While there is no body of evidence to answer the question of how long a patient treated with olanzapine and fluoxetine in combination should remain on it, it is generally accepted that bipolar I disorder, including the depressive episodes associated with bipolar I disorder, is a chronic illness requiring chronic treatment. The physician should periodically reexamine the need for continued pharmacotherapy.
  • Olanzapine monotherapy is not indicated for the treatment of depressive episodes associated with bipolar I disorder.

Off-Label Use and Dosage (Adult)

Guideline-Supported Use

There is limited information regarding Off-Label Guideline-Supported Use of Olanzapine (oral) in adult patients.

Non–Guideline-Supported Use

Agitation, acute - Dementia
  • Dosing Information
  • Olanzapine 5 mg.
Anorexia nervosa
  • Dosing Information
  • 2.5 mg daily, increased by 2.5 mg/week up to a maximum dose of 10 mg/day.
Chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting, Moderately or highly emetogenic chemotherapy; Prophylaxis
  • Dosing Information
  • Olanzapine 10 mg orally on days 1 through 4.
Delirium
  • Dosing Information
  • Mean olanzapine starting dose was 3 mg, with titration to mean 4.6 mg at days 2 to 3 and mean 6.3 mg at days 4 to 7.
Schizophrenia, Refractory
  • Dosing Information
  • 18 weeks of treatment with olanzapine 15 to 25 mg/day
Severe major depression with psychotic features
  • Dosing Information
  • Olanzapine 5 mg/day.

Pediatric Indications and Dosage

FDA-Labeled Indications and Dosage (Pediatric)

Schizophrenia
  • Dose Selection — Oral olanzapine should be administered on a once-a-day schedule without regard to meals with a recommended starting dose of 2.5 or 5 mg, with a target dose of 10 mg/day. Efficacy in adolescents with schizophrenia was demonstrated based on a flexible dose range of 2.5 to 20 mg/day in clinical trials, with a mean modal dose of 12.5 mg/day (mean dose of 11.1 mg/day). When dosage adjustments are necessary, dose increments/decrements of 2.5 or 5 mg are recommended.
  • The safety and effectiveness of doses above 20 mg/day have not been evaluated in clinical trials.
  • Maintenance Treatment — The efficacy of olanzapine for the maintenance treatment of schizophrenia in the adolescent population has not been systematically evaluated; however, maintenance efficacy can be extrapolated from adult data along with comparisons of olanzapine pharmacokinetic parameters in adult and adolescent patients. Thus, it is generally recommended that responding patients be continued beyond the acute response, but at the lowest dose needed to maintain remission. Patients should be periodically reassessed to determine the need for maintenance treatment.
Bipolar I Disorder (Manic or Mixed Episodes)
  • Dose Selection— Oral olanzapine should be administered on a once-a-day schedule without regard to meals with a recommended starting dose of 2.5 or 5 mg, with a target dose of 10 mg/day. Efficacy in adolescents with bipolar I disorder (manic or mixed episodes) was demonstrated based on a flexible dose range of 2.5 to 20 mg/day in clinical trials, with a mean modal dose of 10.7 mg/day (mean dose of 8.9 mg/day). When dosage adjustments are necessary, dose increments/decrements of 2.5 or 5 mg are recommended.
  • The safety and effectiveness of doses above 20 mg/day have not been evaluated in clinical trials.
  • Maintenance Treatment— The efficacy of olanzapine for the maintenance treatment of bipolar I disorder in the adolescent population has not been evaluated; however, maintenance efficacy can be extrapolated from adult data along with comparisons of olanzapine pharmacokinetic parameters in adult and adolescent patients. Thus, it is generally recommended that responding patients be continued beyond the acute response, but at the lowest dose needed to maintain remission. Patients should be periodically reassessed to determine the need for maintenance treatment.

Off-Label Use and Dosage (Pediatric)

Guideline-Supported Use

There is limited information regarding Off-Label Guideline-Supported Use of Olanzapine (oral) in pediatric patients.

Non–Guideline-Supported Use

There is limited information regarding Off-Label Non–Guideline-Supported Use of Olanzapine (oral) in pediatric patients.

Contraindications

  • None with olanzapine monotherapy.
  • When using olanzapine and fluoxetine in combination, also refer to the Contraindications section of the package insert for Symbyax.
  • For specific information about the contraindications of lithium or valproate, refer to the Contraindications section of the package inserts for these other products.

Warnings

WARNING: INCREASED MORTALITY IN ELDERLY PATIENTS WITH DEMENTIA-RELATED PSYCHOSIS
See full prescribing information for complete Boxed Warning.
  • Elderly patients with dementia-related psychosis treated with antipsychotic drugs are at an increased risk of death. Analyses of seventeen placebo-controlled trials (modal duration of 10 weeks), largely in patients taking atypical antipsychotic drugs, revealed a risk of death in drug-treated patients of between 1.6 to 1.7 times the risk of death in placebo-treated patients. Over the course of a typical 10-week controlled trial, the rate of death in drug-treated patients was about 4.5%, compared to a rate of about 2.6% in the placebo group. Although the causes of death were varied, most of the deaths appeared to be either cardiovascular (e.g., heart failure, sudden death) or infectious (e.g., pneumonia) in nature. Observational studies suggest that, similar to atypical antipsychotic drugs, treatment with conventional antipsychotic drugs may increase mortality. The extent to which the findings of increased mortality in observational studies may be attributed to the antipsychotic drug as opposed to some characteristic(s) of the patients is not clear. Olanzapine is not approved for the treatment of patients with dementia-related psychosis.
  • When using olanzapine and fluoxetine in combination, also refer to the Boxed Warning section of the package insert for Symbyax.

Precautions

Elderly Patients with Dementia-Related Psychosis
  • Increased Mortality
  • Elderly patients with dementia-related psychosis treated with antipsychotic drugs are at an increased risk of death. Olanzapine is not approved for the treatment of patients with dementia-related psychosis.
  • In placebo-controlled clinical trials of elderly patients with dementia-related psychosis, the incidence of death in olanzapine-treated patients was significantly greater than placebo-treated patients (3.5% vs 1.5%, respectively).
  • Cerebrovascular Adverse Events (CVAE), Including Stroke
  • Cerebrovascular adverse events (e.g., stroke, transient ischemic attack), including fatalities, were reported in patients in trials of olanzapine in elderly patients with dementia-related psychosis. In placebo-controlled trials, there was a significantly higher incidence of cerebrovascular adverse events in patients treated with olanzapine compared to patients treated with placebo. Olanzapine is not approved for the treatment of patients with dementia-related psychosis.
Suicide
  • The possibility of a suicide attempt is inherent in schizophrenia and in bipolar I disorder, and close supervision of high-risk patients should accompany drug therapy. Prescriptions for olanzapine should be written for the smallest quantity of tablets consistent with good patient management, in order to reduce the risk of overdose.
Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome (NMS)
  • The diagnostic evaluation of patients with this syndrome is complicated. In arriving at a diagnosis, it is important to exclude cases where the clinical presentation includes both serious medical illness (e.g., pneumonia, systemic infection, etc.) and untreated or inadequately treated extrapyramidal signs and symptoms (EPS). Other important considerations in the differential diagnosis include central anticholinergic toxicity, heat stroke, drug fever, and primary central nervous system pathology.
  • The management of NMS should include: 1) immediate discontinuation of antipsychotic drugs and other drugs not essential to concurrent therapy; 2) intensive symptomatic treatment and medical monitoring; and 3) treatment of any concomitant serious medical problems for which specific treatments are available. There is no general agreement about specific pharmacological treatment regimens for NMS.
  • If a patient requires antipsychotic drug treatment after recovery from NMS, the potential reintroduction of drug therapy should be carefully considered. The patient should be carefully monitored, since recurrences of NMS have been reported.
Hyperglycemia
  • Physicians should consider the risks and benefits when prescribing olanzapine to patients with an established diagnosis of diabetes mellitus, or having borderline increased blood glucose level (fasting 100 to 126 mg/dL, non-fasting 140 to 200 mg/dL). Patients taking olanzapine should be monitored regularly for worsening of glucose control. Patients starting treatment with olanzapine should undergo fasting blood glucose testing at the beginning of treatment and periodically during treatment. Any patient treated with atypical antipsychotics should be monitored for symptoms of hyperglycemia including polydipsia, polyuria, polyphagia, and weakness. Patients who develop symptoms of hyperglycemia during treatment with atypical antipsychotics should undergo fasting blood glucose testing. In some cases, hyperglycemia has resolved when the atypical antipsychotic was discontinued; however, some patients required continuation of anti-diabetic treatment despite discontinuation of the suspect drug.
  • Hyperglycemia, in some cases extreme and associated with ketoacidosis or hyperosmolar coma or death, has been reported in patients treated with atypical antipsychotics including olanzapine. Assessment of the relationship between atypical antipsychotic use and glucose abnormalities is complicated by the possibility of an increased background risk of diabetes mellitus in patients with schizophrenia and the increasing incidence of diabetes mellitus in the general population. Epidemiological studies suggest an increased risk of treatment-emergent hyperglycemia-related adverse reactions in patients treated with the atypical antipsychotics. While relative risk estimates are inconsistent, the association between atypical antipsychotics and increases in glucose levels appears to fall on a continuum and olanzapine appears to have a greater association than some other atypical antipsychotics.
  • Mean increases in blood glucose have been observed in patients treated (median exposure of 9.2 months) with olanzapine in phase 1 of the Clinical Antipsychotic Trials of Intervention Effectiveness (CATIE). The mean increase of serum glucose (fasting and nonfasting samples) from baseline to the average of the 2 highest serum concentrations was 15.0 mg/dL.
  • In a study of healthy volunteers, subjects who received olanzapine (N=22) for 3 weeks had a mean increase compared to baseline in fasting blood glucose of 2.3 mg/dL. Placebo-treated subjects (N=19) had a mean increase in fasting blood glucose compared to baseline of 0.34 mg/dL.
  • Olanzapine Monotherapy in Adults
  • In an analysis of 5 placebo-controlled adult olanzapine monotherapy studies with a median treatment duration of approximately 3 weeks, olanzapine was associated with a greater mean change in fasting glucose levels compared to placebo (2.76 mg/dL versus 0.17 mg/dL). The difference in mean changes between olanzapine and placebo was greater in patients with evidence of glucose dysregulation at baseline (patients diagnosed with diabetes mellitus or related adverse reactions, patients treated with anti-diabetic agents, patients with a baseline random glucose level ≥200 mg/dL, and/or a baseline fasting glucose level ≥126 mg/dL). Olanzapine-treated patients had a greater mean HbA1c increase from baseline of 0.04% (median exposure 21 days), compared to a mean HbA1c decrease of 0.06% in placebo-treated subjects (median exposure 17 days).
  • In an analysis of 8 placebo-controlled studies (median treatment exposure 4-5 weeks), 6.1% of olanzapine-treated subjects (N=855) had treatment-emergent glycosuria compared to 2.8% of placebo-treated subjects (N=599). Table 2 shows short-term and long-term changes in fasting glucose levels from adult olanzapine monotherapy studies.
File:Olanzapine (oral)02.png
This image is provided by the National Library of Medicine.
  • The mean change in fasting glucose for patients exposed at least 48 weeks was 4.2 mg/dL (N=487). In analyses of patients who completed 9-12 months of olanzapine therapy, mean change in fasting and nonfasting glucose levels continued to increase over time.
  • Olanzapine Monotherapy in Adolescents
  • The safety and efficacy of olanzapine have not been established in patients under the age of 13 years. In an analysis of 3 placebo-controlled olanzapine monotherapy studies of adolescent patients, including those with schizophrenia (6 weeks) or bipolar I disorder (manic or mixed episodes) (3 weeks), olanzapine was associated with a greater mean change from baseline in fasting glucose levels compared to placebo (2.68 mg/dL versus -2.59 mg/dL). The mean change in fasting glucose for adolescents exposed at least 24 weeks was 3.1 mg/dL (N=121). Table 3 shows short-term and long-term changes in fasting blood glucose from adolescent olanzapine monotherapy studies.
File:Olanzapine (oral)03.png
This image is provided by the National Library of Medicine.
Hyperlipidemia
  • Undesirable alterations in lipids have been observed with olanzapine use. Clinical monitoring, including baseline and periodic follow-up lipid evaluations in patients using olanzapine, is recommended.
  • Clinically significant, and sometimes very high (>500 mg/dL), elevations in triglyceride levels have been observed with olanzapine use. Modest mean increases in total cholesterol have also been seen with olanzapine use.
  • Olanzapine Monotherapy in Adults
  • In an analysis of 5 placebo-controlled olanzapine monotherapy studies with treatment duration up to 12 weeks, olanzapine-treated patients had increases from baseline in mean fasting total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, and triglycerides of 5.3 mg/dL, 3.0 mg/dL, and 20.8 mg/dL respectively compared to decreases from baseline in mean fasting total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, and triglycerides of 6.1 mg/dL, 4.3 mg/dL, and 10.7 mg/dL for placebo-treated patients. For fasting HDL cholesterol, no clinically meaningful differences were observed between olanzapine-treated patients and placebo-treated patients. Mean increases in fasting lipid values (total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, and triglycerides) were greater in patients without evidence of lipid dysregulation at baseline, where lipid dysregulation was defined as patients diagnosed with dyslipidemia or related adverse reactions, patients treated with lipid lowering agents, or patients with high baseline lipid levels.
  • In long-term studies (at least 48 weeks), patients had increases from baseline in mean fasting total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, and triglycerides of 5.6 mg/dL, 2.5 mg/dL, and 18.7 mg/dL, respectively, and a mean decrease in fasting HDL cholesterol of 0.16 mg/dL. In an analysis of patients who completed 12 months of therapy, the mean nonfasting total cholesterol did not increase further after approximately 4-6 months.
  • The proportion of patients who had changes (at least once) in total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol or triglycerides from normal or borderline to high, or changes in HDL cholesterol from normal or borderline to low, was greater in long-term studies (at least 48 weeks) as compared with short-term studies. Table 4 shows categorical changes in fasting lipids values.
File:Olanzapine (oral)04.png
This image is provided by the National Library of Medicine.
  • In phase 1 of the Clinical Antipsychotic Trials of Intervention Effectiveness (CATIE), over a median exposure of 9.2 months, the mean increase in triglycerides in patients taking olanzapine was 40.5 mg/dL. In phase 1 of CATIE, the mean increase in total cholesterol was 9.4 mg/dL.
  • Olanzapine Monotherapy in Adolescents
  • The safety and efficacy of olanzapine have not been established in patients under the age of 13 years. In an analysis of 3 placebo-controlled olanzapine monotherapy studies of adolescents, including those with schizophrenia (6 weeks) or bipolar I disorder (manic or mixed episodes) (3 weeks), olanzapine-treated adolescents had increases from baseline in mean fasting total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, and triglycerides of 12.9 mg/dL, 6.5 mg/dL, and 28.4 mg/dL, respectively, compared to increases from baseline in mean fasting total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol of 1.3 mg/dL and 1.0 mg/dL, and a decrease in triglycerides of 1.1 mg/dL for placebo-treated adolescents. For fasting HDL cholesterol, no clinically meaningful differences were observed between olanzapine-treated adolescents and placebo-treated adolescents.
  • In long-term studies (at least 24 weeks), adolescents had increases from baseline in mean fasting total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, and triglycerides of 5.5 mg/dL, 5.4 mg/dL, and 20.5 mg/dL, respectively, and a mean decrease in fasting HDL cholesterol of 4.5 mg/dL. Table 5 shows categorical changes in fasting lipids values in adolescents.
File:Olanzapine (oral)05.png
This image is provided by the National Library of Medicine.
Weight Gain
  • Potential consequences of weight gain should be considered prior to starting olanzapine. Patients receiving olanzapine should receive regular monitoring of weight.
  • Olanzapine Monotherapy in Adults
  • In an analysis of 13 placebo-controlled olanzapine monotherapy studies, olanzapine-treated patients gained an average of 2.6 kg (5.7 lb), compared to an average 0.3 kg (0.6 lb) weight loss in placebo-treated patients with a median exposure of 6 weeks; 22.2% of olanzapine-treated patients gained at least 7% of their baseline weight, compared to 3% of placebo-treated patients, with a median exposure to event of 8 weeks; 4.2% of olanzapine-treated patients gained at least 15% of their baseline weight, compared to 0.3% of placebo-treated patients, with a median exposure to event of 12 weeks. Clinically significant weight gain was observed across all baseline Body Mass Index (BMI) categories. Discontinuation due to weight gain occurred in 0.2% of olanzapine-treated patients and in 0% of placebo-treated patients.
  • In long-term studies (at least 48 weeks), the mean weight gain was 5.6 kg (12.3 lb) (median exposure of 573 days, N=2021). The percentages of patients who gained at least 7%, 15%, or 25% of their baseline body weight with long-term exposure were 64%, 32%, and 12%, respectively. Discontinuation due to weight gain occurred in 0.4% of olanzapine-treated patients following at least 48 weeks of exposure. Table 6 includes data on adult weight gain with olanzapine pooled from 86 clinical trials. The data in each column represent data for those patients who completed treatment periods of the durations specified.
File:Olanzapine (oral)06.png
This image is provided by the National Library of Medicine.
  • Olanzapine Monotherapy in Adolescents
  • The safety and efficacy of olanzapine have not been established in patients under the age of 13 years. Mean increase in weight in adolescents was greater than in adults. In 4 placebo-controlled trials, discontinuation due to weight gain occurred in 1% of olanzapine-treated patients, compared to 0% of placebo-treated patients.
File:Olanzapine (oral)07.png
This image is provided by the National Library of Medicine.
  • In long-term studies (at least 24 weeks), the mean weight gain was 11.2 kg (24.6 lb); (median exposure of 201 days, N=179). The percentages of adolescents who gained at least 7%, 15%, or 25% of their baseline body weight with long-term exposure were 89%, 55%, and 29%, respectively. Among adolescent patients, mean weight gain by baseline BMI category was 11.5 kg (25.3 lb), 12.1 kg (26.6 lb), and 12.7 kg (27.9 lb), respectively, for normal (N=106), overweight (N=26) and obese (N=17). Discontinuation due to weight gain occurred in 2.2% of olanzapine-treated patients following at least 24 weeks of exposure.
  • Table 8 shows data on adolescent weight gain with olanzapine pooled from 6 clinical trials. The data in each column represent data for those patients who completed treatment periods of the durations specified. Little clinical trial data is available on weight gain in adolescents with olanzapine beyond 6 months of treatment.
File:Olanzapine (oral)08.png
This image is provided by the National Library of Medicine.
Tardive Dyskinesia
  • A syndrome of potentially irreversible, involuntary, dyskinetic movements may develop in patients treated with antipsychotic drugs. Although the prevalence of the syndrome appears to be highest among the elderly, especially elderly women, it is impossible to rely upon prevalence estimates to predict, at the inception of antipsychotic treatment, which patients are likely to develop the syndrome. Whether antipsychotic drug products differ in their potential to cause tardive dyskinesia is unknown.
  • The risk of developing tardive dyskinesia and the likelihood that it will become irreversible are believed to increase as the duration of treatment and the total cumulative dose of antipsychotic drugs administered to the patient increase. However, the syndrome can develop, although much less commonly, after relatively brief treatment periods at low doses or may even arise after discontinuation of treatment.
  • There is no known treatment for established cases of tardive dyskinesia, although the syndrome may remit, partially or completely, if antipsychotic treatment is withdrawn. Antipsychotic treatment, itself, however, may suppress (or partially suppress) the signs and symptoms of the syndrome and thereby may possibly mask the underlying process. The effect that symptomatic suppression has upon the long-term course of the syndrome is unknown.
  • Given these considerations, olanzapine should be prescribed in a manner that is most likely to minimize the occurrence of tardive dyskinesia. Chronic antipsychotic treatment should generally be reserved for patients (1) who suffer from a chronic illness that is known to respond to antipsychotic drugs, and (2) for whom alternative, equally effective, but potentially less harmful treatments are not available or appropriate. In patients who do require chronic treatment, the smallest dose and the shortest duration of treatment producing a satisfactory clinical response should be sought. The need for continued treatment should be reassessed periodically.
  • If signs and symptoms of tardive dyskinesia appear in a patient on olanzapine, drug discontinuation should be considered. However, some patients may require treatment with olanzapine despite the presence of the syndrome.
  • For specific information about the warnings of lithium or valproate, refer to the Warnings section of the package inserts for these other products.
Orthostatic Hypotension
  • For oral olanzapine therapy, the risk of orthostatic hypotension and syncope may be minimized by initiating therapy with 5 mg QD. A more gradual titration to the target dose should be considered if hypotension occurs.
  • Syncope was reported in 0.6% (15/2500) of olanzapine-treated patients in phase 2-3 oral olanzapine studies. The risk for this sequence of hypotension, bradycardia, and sinus pause may be greater in nonpsychiatric patients compared to psychiatric patients who are possibly more adapted to certain effects of psychotropic drugs.
Leukopenia, Neutropenia, and Agranulocytosis
  • Patients with clinically significant neutropenia should be carefully monitored for fever or other symptoms or signs of infection and treated promptly if such symptoms or signs occur. Patients with severe neutropenia (absolute neutrophil count <1000/mm3) should discontinue olanzapine and have their WBC followed until recovery.
Dysphagia
Seizures
  • During premarketing testing, seizures occurred in 0.9% (22/2500) of olanzapine-treated patients. There were confounding factors that may have contributed to the occurrence of seizures in many of these cases. Olanzapine should be used cautiously in patients with a history of seizures or with conditions that potentially lower the seizure threshold, e.g., Alzheimer’s dementia. Olanzapine is not approved for the treatment of patients with Alzheimer’s disease. Conditions that lower the seizure threshold may be more prevalent in a population of 65 years or older.
Potential for Cognitive and Motor Impairment
  • Somnolence was a commonly reported adverse reaction associated with olanzapine treatment, occurring at an incidence of 26% in olanzapine patients compared to 15% in placebo patients. This adverse reaction was also dose related. Somnolence led to discontinuation in 0.4% (9/2500) of patients in the premarketing database.
  • Since olanzapine has the potential to impair judgment, thinking, or motor skills, patients should be cautioned about operating hazardous machinery, including automobiles, until they are reasonably certain that olanzapine therapy does not affect them adversely.
Body Temperature Regulation
  • Disruption of the body’s ability to reduce core body temperature has been attributed to antipsychotic agents. Appropriate care is advised when prescribing olanzapine for patients who will be experiencing conditions which may contribute to an elevation in core body temperature, e.g., exercising strenuously, exposure to extreme heat, receiving concomitant medication with anticholinergic activity, or being subject to dehydration.
Use in Patients with Concomitant Illness
  • Clinical experience with olanzapine in patients with certain concomitant systemic illnesses is limited.
  • Olanzapine exhibits in vitro muscarinic receptor affinity. In premarketing clinical trials with olanzapine, olanzapine was associated with constipation, dry mouth, and tachycardia, all adverse reactions possibly related to cholinergic antagonism. Such adverse reactions were not often the basis for discontinuations from olanzapine, but olanzapine should be used with caution in patients with clinically significant prostatic hypertrophy, narrow angle glaucoma, or a history of paralytic ileus or related conditions.
  • In 5 placebo-controlled studies of olanzapine in elderly patients with dementia-related psychosis (n=1184), the following treatment-emergent adverse reactions were reported in olanzapine-treated patients at an incidence of at least 2% and significantly greater than placebo-treated patients: falls, somnolence, peripheral edema, abnormal gait, urinary incontinence, lethargy, increased weight, asthenia, pyrexia, pneumonia, dry mouth and visual hallucinations. The rate of discontinuation due to adverse reactions was greater with olanzapine than placebo (13% vs 7%). Elderly patients with dementia-related psychosis treated with olanzapine are at an increased risk of death compared to placebo. Olanzapine is not approved for the treatment of patients with dementia-related psychosis.
  • Olanzapine has not been evaluated or used to any appreciable extent in patients with a recent history of myocardial infarction or unstable heart disease. Patients with these diagnoses were excluded from premarketing clinical studies. Because of the risk of orthostatic hypotension with olanzapine, caution should be observed in cardiac patients.
Hyperprolactinemia
  • As with other drugs that antagonize dopamine D2 receptors, olanzapine elevates prolactin levels, and the elevation persists during chronic administration. Hyperprolactinemia may suppress hypothalamic GnRH, resulting in reduced pituitary gonadotropin secretion. This, in turn, may inhibit reproductive function by impairing gonadal steroidogenesis in both female and male patients. Galactorrhea, amenorrhea, gynecomastia, and impotence have been reported in patients receiving prolactin-elevating compounds. Long-standing hyperprolactinemia when associated with hypogonadism may lead to decreased bone density in both female and male subjects.
  • Tissue culture experiments indicate that approximately one-third of human breast cancers are prolactin dependent in vitro, a factor of potential importance if the prescription of these drugs is contemplated in a patient with previously detected breast cancer. As is common with compounds which increase prolactin release, an increase in mammary gland neoplasia was observed in the olanzapine carcinogenicity studies conducted in mice and rats. Neither clinical studies nor epidemiologic studies conducted to date have shown an association between chronic administration of this class of drugs and tumorigenesis in humans; the available evidence is considered too limited to be conclusive at this time.
  • In placebo-controlled olanzapine clinical studies (up to 12 weeks), changes from normal to high in prolactin concentrations were observed in 30% of adults treated with olanzapine as compared to 10.5% of adults treated with placebo. In a pooled analysis from clinical studies including 8136 adults treated with olanzapine, potentially associated clinical manifestations included menstrual-related events1 (2% [49/3240] of females), sexual function-related events2 (2% [150/8136] of females and males), and breast-related events3 (0.7% [23/3240] of females, 0.2% [9/4896] of males).
  • In placebo-controlled olanzapine monotherapy studies in adolescent patients (up to 6 weeks) with schizophrenia or bipolar I disorder (manic or mixed episodes), changes from normal to high in prolactin concentrations were observed in 47% of olanzapinetreated patients compared to 7% of placebo-treated patients. In a pooled analysis from clinical trials including 454 adolescents treated with olanzapine, potentially associated clinical manifestations included menstrual-related events1 (1% [2/168] of females), sexual function-related events2 (0.7% [3/454] of females and males), and breast-related events3 (2% [3/168] of females, 2% [7/286] of males).

Adverse Reactions

Clinical Trials Experience

  • When using olanzapine and fluoxetine in combination, also refer to the Adverse Reactions section of the package insert for Symbyax.
Clinical Trials Experience
  • The information below for olanzapine is derived from a clinical trial database for olanzapine consisting of 8661 adult patients with approximately 4165 patient-years of exposure to oral olanzapine. This database includes: (1) 2500 patients who participated in multiple-dose oral olanzapine premarketing trials in schizophrenia and Alzheimer’s disease representing approximately 1122 patient-years of exposure as of February 14, 1995; (2) 182 patients who participated in oral olanzapine premarketing bipolar I disorder (manic or mixed episodes) trials representing approximately 66 patient-years of exposure; (3) 191 patients who participated in an oral olanzapine trial of patients having various psychiatric symptoms in association with Alzheimer’s disease representing approximately 29 patient-years of exposure; and (4) 5788 patients from 88 additional oral olanzapine clinical trials as of December 31, 2001. In addition, information from the premarketing 6-week clinical study database for olanzapine in combination with lithium or valproate, consisting of 224 patients who participated in bipolar I disorder (manic or mixed episodes) trials with approximately 22 patient-years of exposure, is included below.
  • The conditions and duration of treatment with olanzapine varied greatly and included (in overlapping categories) open-label and double-blind phases of studies, inpatients and outpatients, fixed-dose and dose-titration studies, and short-term or longer-term exposure. Adverse reactions were assessed by collecting adverse reactions, results of physical examinations, vital signs, weights, laboratory analytes, ECGs, chest x-rays, and results of ophthalmologic examinations.
  • Certain portions of the discussion below relating to objective or numeric safety parameters, namely, dose-dependent adverse reactions, vital sign changes, weight gain, laboratory changes, and ECG changes are derived from studies in patients with schizophrenia and have not been duplicated for bipolar I disorder (manic or mixed episodes). However, this information is also generally applicable to bipolar I disorder (manic or mixed episodes).
  • Adverse reactions during exposure were obtained by spontaneous report and recorded by clinical investigators using terminology of their own choosing. Consequently, it is not possible to provide a meaningful estimate of the proportion of individuals experiencing adverse reactions without first grouping similar types of reactions into a smaller number of standardized reaction categories. In the tables and tabulations that follow, MedDRA and COSTART Dictionary terminology has been used to classify reported adverse reactions.
  • The stated frequencies of adverse reactions represent the proportion of individuals who experienced, at least once, a treatment-emergent adverse reaction of the type listed. A reaction was considered treatment emergent if it occurred for the first time or worsened while receiving therapy following baseline evaluation. The reported reactions do not include those reaction terms that were so general as to be uninformative. Reactions listed elsewhere in labeling may not be repeated below. It is important to emphasize that, although the reactions occurred during treatment with olanzapine, they were not necessarily caused by it. The entire label should be read to gain a complete understanding of the safety profile of olanzapine.
  • The prescriber should be aware that the figures in the tables and tabulations cannot be used to predict the incidence of side effects in the course of usual medical practice where patient characteristics and other factors differ from those that prevailed in the clinical trials. Similarly, the cited frequencies cannot be compared with figures obtained from other clinical investigations involving different treatments, uses, and investigators. The cited figures, however, do provide the prescribing physician with some basis for estimating the relative contribution of drug and nondrug factors to the adverse reactions incidence in the population studied.
Incidence of Adverse Reactions in Short-Term, Placebo-Controlled and Combination Trials
  • The following findings are based on premarketing trials of oral olanzapine for Schizophrenia, Bipolar I Disorder (manic or mixed episodes), a subsequent trial of patients having various psychiatric symptoms in association with Alzheimer’s disease, and premarketing combination trials.
Adverse Reactions Associated with Discontinuation of Treatment in Short-Term, Placebo-Controlled Trials
  • Schizophrenia — Overall, there was no difference in the incidence of discontinuation due to adverse reactions (5% for oral olanzapine vs 6% for placebo). However, discontinuations due to increases in ALT were considered to be drug related (2% for oral olanzapine vs 0% for placebo).
  • Bipolar I Disorder (Manic or Mixed Episodes) Monotherapy — Overall, there was no difference in the incidence of discontinuation due to adverse reactions (2% for oral olanzapine vs 2% for placebo).
  • Adverse Reactions Associated with Discontinuation of Treatment in Short-Term Combination Trials
  • Bipolar I Disorder (Manic or Mixed Episodes), Olanzapine as Adjunct to Lithium or Valproate — In a study of patients who were already tolerating either lithium or valproate as monotherapy, discontinuation rates due to adverse reactions were 11% for the combination of oral olanzapine with lithium or valproate compared to 2% for patients who remained on lithium or valproate monotherapy. Discontinuations with the combination of oral olanzapine and lithium or valproate that occurred in more than 1 patient were: somnolence (3%), weight gain (1%), and peripheral edema (1%).
Commonly Observed Adverse Reactions in Short-Term, Placebo-Controlled Trials
  • The most commonly observed adverse reactions associated with the use of oral olanzapine (incidence of 5% or greater) and not observed at an equivalent incidence among placebo-treated patients (olanzapine incidence at least twice that for placebo) were:
File:Olanzapine (oral)09.png
This image is provided by the National Library of Medicine.
File:Olanzapine (oral)10.png
This image is provided by the National Library of Medicine.
  • Adverse Reactions Occurring at an Incidence of 2% or More Among Oral Olanzapine-Treated Patients in Short-Term, Placebo-Controlled Trials
  • Table 11 enumerates the incidence, rounded to the nearest percent, of treatment-emergent adverse reactions that occurred in 2% or more of patients treated with oral olanzapine (doses ≥2.5 mg/day) and with incidence greater than placebo who participated in the acute phase of placebo-controlled trials.
File:Olanzapine (oral)11.png
This image is provided by the National Library of Medicine.
  • Commonly Observed Adverse Reactions in Short-Term Trials of Oral Olanzapine ias Adjunct to Lithium or Valproate
  • In the bipolar I disorder (manic or mixed episodes) combination placebo-controlled trials, the most commonly observed adverse reactions associated with the combination of olanzapine and lithium or valproate (incidence of ≥5% and at least twice placebo) were:
File:Olanzapine (oral)12.png
This image is provided by the National Library of Medicine.
  • Adverse Reactions Occurring at an Incidence of 2% or More Among Oral Olanzapine-Treated Patients in Short-Term Trials of Olanzapine as Adjunct to Lithium or Valproate
  • Table 13 enumerates the incidence, rounded to the nearest percent, of treatment-emergent adverse reactions that occurred in 2% or more of patients treated with the combination of olanzapine (doses ≥5 mg/day) and lithium or valproate and with incidence greater than lithium or valproate alone who participated in the acute phase of placebo-controlled combination trials.
File:Olanzapine (oral)13.png
This image is provided by the National Library of Medicine.
  • a Denominator used was for females only (olanzapine, N=128; placebo, N=51).
  • For specific information about the adverse reactions observed with lithium or valproate, refer to the Adverse Reactions section of the package inserts for these other products.
Additional Findings Observed in Clinical Trials
  • Dose Dependency of Adverse Reactions in Short-Term, Placebo-Controlled Trials
  • Extrapyramidal Symptoms: The following table enumerates the percentage of patients with treatment-emergent extrapyramidal symptoms as assessed by categorical analyses of formal rating scales during acute therapy in a controlled clinical trial comparing oral olanzapine at 3 fixed doses with placebo in the treatment of schizophrenia in a 6-week trial.
File:Olanzapine (oral)15.png
This image is provided by the National Library of Medicine.
  • The following table enumerates the percentage of patients with treatment-emergent extrapyramidal symptoms as assessed by spontaneously reported adverse reactions during acute therapy in the same controlled clinical trial comparing olanzapine at 3 fixed doses with placebo in the treatment of schizophrenia in a 6-week trial.
File:Olanzapine (oral)16.png
This image is provided by the National Library of Medicine.
  • The following table enumerates the percentage of adolescent patients with treatment-emergent extrapyramidal symptoms as assessed by spontaneously reported adverse reactions during acute therapy (dose range: 2.5 to 20 mg/day).
File:Olanzapine (oral)17.png
This image is provided by the National Library of Medicine.
  • a Categories are based on Standard MedDRA Queries (SMQ) for extrapyramidal symptoms as defined in MedDRA version 12.0.
  • Dystonia, Class Effect: Symptoms of dystonia, prolonged abnormal contractions of muscle groups, may occur in susceptible individuals during the first few days of treatment. Dystonic symptoms include: spasm of the neck muscles, sometimes progressing to tightness of the throat, swallowing difficulty, difficulty breathing, and/or protrusion of the tongue. While these symptoms can occur at low doses, the frequency and severity are greater with high potency and at higher doses of first generation antipsychotic drugs. In general, an elevated risk of acute dystonia may be observed in males and younger age groups receiving antipsychotics; however, events of dystonia have been reported infrequently (<1%) with olanzapine use.
  • Other Adverse Reactions: The following table addresses dose relatedness for other adverse reactions using data from a schizophrenia trial involving fixed dosage ranges of oral olanzapine. It enumerates the percentage of patients with treatment-emergent adverse reactions for the 3 fixed-dose range groups and placebo. The data were analyzed using the Cochran-Armitage test, excluding the placebo group, and the table includes only those adverse reactions for which there was a trend.
File:Olanzapine (oral)20.png
This image is provided by the National Library of Medicine.
Differences among Fixed-Dose Groups Observed in Other Olanzapine Clinical Trials
  • In a single 8-week randomized, double-blind, fixed-dose study comparing 10 (N=199), 20 (N=200) and 40 (N=200) mg/day of oral olanzapine in patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder, differences among 3 dose groups were observed for the following safety outcomes: weight gain, prolactin elevation, fatigue and dizziness. Mean baseline to endpoint increase in weight (10 mg/day: 1.9 kg; 20 mg/day: 2.3 kg; 40 mg/day: 3 kg) was observed with significant differences between 10 vs 40 mg/day. Incidence of treatment-emergent prolactin elevation >24.2 ng/mL (female) or >18.77 ng/mL (male) at any time during the trial (10 mg/day: 31.2%; 20 mg/day: 42.7%; 40 mg/day: 61.1%) with significant differences between 10 vs 40 mg/day and 20 vs 40 mg/day; fatigue (10 mg/day: 1.5%; 20 mg/day: 2.1%; 40 mg/day: 6.6%) with significant differences between 10 vs 40 and 20 vs 40 mg/day; and dizziness (10 mg/day: 2.6%; 20 mg/day: 1.6%; 40 mg/day: 6.6%) with significant differences between 20 vs 40 mg, was observed.
Other Adverse Reactions Observed During the Clinical Trial Evaluation of Oral Olanzapine
  • Following is a list of treatment-emergent adverse reactions reported by patients treated with oral olanzapine (at multiple doses ≥1 mg/day) in clinical trials. This listing is not intended to include reactions (1) already listed in previous tables or elsewhere in labeling, (2) for which a drug cause was remote, (3) which were so general as to be uninformative, (4) which were not considered to have significant clinical implications, or (5) which occurred at a rate equal to or less than placebo. Reactions are classified by body system using the following definitions: frequent adverse reactions are those occurring in at least 1/100 patients; infrequent adverse reactions are those occurring in 1/100 to 1/1000 patients; rare reactions are those occurring in fewer than 1/1000 patients.
Body as a Whole

Infrequent: chills, face edema, photosensitivity reaction, suicide attempt1; Rare: chills and fever, hangover effect, sudden death1.

Cardiovascular System

Infrequent: cerebrovascular accident, vasodilatation.

Digestive System

Infrequent: nausea and vomiting, tongue edema; Rare: ileus, intestinal obstruction, liver fatty deposit.

Hemic and Lymphatic System

Infrequent: leukopenia, thrombocytopenia.

Metabolic and Nutritional Disorders

Infrequent: alkaline phosphatase increased, bilirubinemia, hypoproteinemia.

Musculoskeletal System

Rare: osteoporosis.

Nervous System

Infrequent: ataxia, dysarthria, libido decreased, stupor; Rare: coma.

Respiratory System

Infrequent: epistaxis; Rare: lung edema. Skin and Appendages — Infrequent: alopecia. Special Senses — Infrequent: abnormality of accommodation, dry eyes; Rare: mydriasis.

Urogenital System

Infrequent: amenorrhea2, breast pain, decreased menstruation, impotence2, increased menstruation2, menorrhagia2, metrorrhagia2, polyuria2, urinary frequency, urinary retention, urinary urgency, urination impaired.

  • 1 These terms represent serious adverse events but do not meet the definition for adverse drug reactions. They are included here because of their seriousness.
  • 2 Adjusted for gender.
Clinical Trials in Adolescent Patients (age 13 to 17 years)
  • Commonly Observed Adverse Reactions in Oral Olanzapine Short-Term, Placebo-Controlled Trials: Adverse reactions in adolescent patients treated with oral olanzapine (doses ≥2.5 mg) reported with an incidence of 5% or more and reported at least twice as frequently as placebo-treated patients are listed in Table 21.
File:Olanzapine (oral)21.png
This image is provided by the National Library of Medicine.
  • Adverse Reactions Occurring at an Incidence of 2% or More Among Oral Olanzapine-Treated Patients in Short-Term (3-6 weeks), Placebo-Controlled Trials: Adverse reactions in adolescent patients treated with oral olanzapine (doses ≥2.5 mg) reported with an incidence of 2% or more and greater than placebo are listed in Table 22.
File:Olanzapine (oral)22.png
This image is provided by the National Library of Medicine.

Postmarketing Experience

  • The following adverse reactions have been identified during post-approval use of olanzapine. Because these reactions are reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is difficult to reliably estimate their frequency or evaluate a causal relationship to drug exposure.

Drug Interactions

Potential for Other Drugs to Affect Olanzapine
  • Cimetidine and Antacids — Single doses of cimetidine (800 mg) or aluminum- and magnesium-containing antacids did not affect the oral bioavailability of olanzapine.
  • Inducers of CYP1A2 — Carbamazepine therapy (200 mg bid) causes an approximately 50% increase in the clearance of olanzapine. This increase is likely due to the fact that carbamazepine is a potent inducer of CYP1A2 activity. Higher daily doses of carbamazepine may cause an even greater increase in olanzapine clearance.
  • Alcohol — Ethanol (45 mg/70 kg single dose) did not have an effect on olanzapine pharmacokinetics. The co-administration of alcohol (i.e., ethanol) with olanzapine potentiated the orthostatic hypotension observed with olanzapine.
  • Inhibitors of CYP1A2
  • Fluvoxamine: Fluvoxamine, a CYP1A2 inhibitor, decreases the clearance of olanzapine. This results in a mean increase in olanzapine Cmax following fluvoxamine of 54% in female nonsmokers and 77% in male smokers. The mean increase in olanzapine AUC is 52% and 108%, respectively. Lower doses of olanzapine should be considered in patients receiving concomitant treatment with fluvoxamine.
  • Inhibitors of CYP2D6
  • Fluoxetine: Fluoxetine (60 mg single dose or 60 mg daily dose for 8 days) causes a small (mean 16%) increase in the maximum concentration of olanzapine and a small (mean 16%) decrease in olanzapine clearance. The magnitude of the impact of this factor is small in comparison to the overall variability between individuals, and therefore dose modification is not routinely recommended. When using olanzapine and fluoxetine in combination, also refer to the Drug Interactions section of the package insert for Symbyax.
  • Warfarin — Warfarin (20 mg single dose) did not affect olanzapine pharmacokinetics.
  • Inducers of CYP1A2 or Glucuronyl Transferase — Omeprazole and rifampin, may cause an increase in olanzapine clearance.
  • Charcoal — The administration of activated charcoal (1 g) reduced the Cmax and AUC of oral olanzapine by about 60%. As peak olanzapine levels are not typically obtained until about 6 hours after dosing, charcoal may be a useful treatment for olanzapine overdose.
Potential for Olanzapine to Affect Other Drugs
  • CNS Acting Drugs — Given the primary CNS effects of olanzapine, caution should be used when olanzapine is taken in combination with other centrally acting drugs and alcohol.
  • Levodopa and Dopamine Agonists — Olanzapine may antagonize the effects of levodopa and dopamine agonists.
  • Lithium — Multiple doses of olanzapine (10 mg for 8 days) did not influence the kinetics of lithium. Therefore, concomitant olanzapine administration does not require dosage adjustment of lithium.
  • Valproate —Olanzapine (10 mg daily for 2 weeks) did not affect the steady state plasma concentrations of valproate. Therefore, concomitant olanzapine administration does not require dosage adjustment of valproate.
  • Effect of Olanzapine on Drug Metabolizing Enzymes — In vitro studies utilizing human liver microsomes suggest that olanzapine has little potential to inhibit CYP1A2, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, CYP2D6, and CYP3A. Thus, olanzapine is unlikely to cause clinically important drug interactions mediated by these enzymes.
  • Imipramine — Single doses of olanzapine did not affect the pharmacokinetics of imipramine or its active metabolite desipramine.
  • Warfarin — Single doses of olanzapine did not affect the pharmacokinetics of warfarin.
  • Diazepam — Olanzapine did not influence the pharmacokinetics of diazepam or its active metabolite N-desmethyldiazepam. However, diazepam co-administered with olanzapine increased the orthostatic hypotension observed with either drug given alone..
  • Alcohol — Multiple doses of olanzapine did not influence the kinetics of ethanol
  • Biperiden — Multiple doses of olanzapine did not influence the kinetics of biperiden.

Use in Specific Populations

Pregnancy

Pregnancy Category (FDA):

  • Pregnancy Category C
  • In oral reproduction studies in rats at doses up to 18 mg/kg/day and in rabbits at doses up to 30 mg/kg/day (9 and 30 times the maximum recommended human daily oral dose on a mg/m2 basis, respectively) no evidence of teratogenicity was observed. In an oral rat teratology study, early resorptions and increased numbers of nonviable fetuses were observed at a dose of 18 mg/kg/day (9 times the maximum recommended human daily oral dose on a mg/m2 basis). Gestation was prolonged at 10 mg/kg/day (5 times the maximum recommended human daily oral dose on a mg/m2 basis). In an oral rabbit teratology study, fetal toxicity (manifested as increased resorptions and decreased fetal weight) occurred at a maternally toxic dose of 30 mg/kg/day (30 times the maximum recommended human daily oral dose on a mg/m2 basis). Because animal reproduction studies are not always predictive of human response, this drug should be used during pregnancy only if the potential benefit justifies the potential risk to the fetus.
  • Placental transfer of olanzapine occurs in rat pups.
  • There are no adequate and well-controlled trials with olanzapine in pregnant females. Seven pregnancies were observed during clinical trials with olanzapine, including 2 resulting in normal births, 1 resulting in neonatal death due to a cardiovascular defect, 3 therapeutic abortions, and 1 spontaneous abortion.
  • Non-Teratogenic Effects - Neonates exposed to antipsychotic drugs (including olanzapine), during the third trimester of pregnancy are at risk for extrapyramidal and/or withdrawal symptoms following delivery. There have been reports of agitation, hypertonia, hypotonia, tremor, somnolence, respiratory distress and feeding disorder in these neonates. These complications have varied in severity; while in some cases symptoms have been self-limited, in other cases neonates have required intensive care unit support and prolonged hospitalization.
  • Olanzapine should be used during pregnancy only if the potential benefit justifies the potential risk to the fetus.


Pregnancy Category (AUS):

  • Australian Drug Evaluation Committee (ADEC) Pregnancy Category

There is no Australian Drug Evaluation Committee (ADEC) guidance on usage of Olanzapine (oral) in women who are pregnant.

Labor and Delivery

  • The effect of olanzapine on labor and delivery in humans is unknown. Parturition in rats was not affected by olanzapine.

Nursing Mothers

  • In a study in lactating, healthy women, olanzapine was excreted in breast milk. Mean infant dose at steady state was estimated to be 1.8% of the maternal olanzapine dose. It is recommended that women receiving olanzapine should not breast-feed.

Pediatric Use

  • The safety and effectiveness of oral olanzapine in the treatment of schizophrenia and manic or mixed episodes associated with bipolar I disorder were established in short-term studies in adolescents (ages 13 to 17 years). Use of olanzapine in adolescents is supported by evidence from adequate and well-controlled studies of olanzapine in which 268 adolescents received olanzapine in a range of 2.5 to 20 mg/day]. Recommended starting dose for adolescents is lower than that for adults. Compared to patients from adult clinical trials, adolescents were likely to gain more weight, experience increased sedation, and have greater increases in total cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL cholesterol, prolactin and hepatic aminotransferase levels. When deciding among the alternative treatments available for adolescents, clinicians should consider the increased potential (in adolescents as compared with adults) for weight gain and hyperlipidemia. Clinicians should consider the potential long-term risks when prescribing to adolescents, and in many cases this may lead them to consider prescribing other drugs first in adolescents.
  • Safety and effectiveness of olanzapine in children <13 years of age have not been established.

Geriatic Use

  • Of the 2500 patients in premarketing clinical studies with oral olanzapine, 11% (263) were 65 years of age or over. In patients with Schizophrenia, there was no indication of any different tolerability of olanzapine in the elderly compared to younger patients. Studies in elderly patients with dementia-related psychosis have suggested that there may be a different tolerability profile in this population compared to younger patients with Schizophrenia. Elderly patients with dementia-related psychosis treated with olanzapine are at an increased risk of death compared to placebo. In placebo-controlled studies of olanzapine in elderly patients with dementia-related psychosis, there was a higher incidence of cerebrovascular adverse events (e.g., stroke, transient ischemic attack) in patients treated with olanzapine compared to patients treated with placebo. Olanzapine is not approved for the treatment of patients with dementia-related psychosis. Also, the presence of factors that might decrease pharmacokinetic clearance or increase the pharmacodynamic response to olanzapine should lead to consideration of a lower starting dose for any geriatric patient.
  • Clinical studies of olanzapine and fluoxetine in combination did not include sufficient numbers of patients ≥65 years of age to determine whether they respond differently from younger patients.

Gender

There is no FDA guidance on the use of Olanzapine (oral) with respect to specific gender populations.

Race

There is no FDA guidance on the use of Olanzapine (oral) with respect to specific racial populations.

Renal Impairment

There is no FDA guidance on the use of Olanzapine (oral) in patients with renal impairment.

Hepatic Impairment

There is no FDA guidance on the use of Olanzapine (oral) in patients with hepatic impairment.

Females of Reproductive Potential and Males

There is no FDA guidance on the use of Olanzapine (oral) in women of reproductive potentials and males.

Immunocompromised Patients

There is no FDA guidance one the use of Olanzapine (oral) in patients who are immunocompromised.

Administration and Monitoring

Administration

  • Oral

Monitoring

There is limited information regarding Monitoring of Olanzapine (oral) in the drug label.

IV Compatibility

There is limited information regarding IV Compatibility of Olanzapine (oral) in the drug label.

Overdosage

Acute Overdose

Signs and Symptoms

  • In premarketing trials involving more than 3100 patients and/or normal subjects, accidental or intentional acute overdosage of olanzapine was identified in 67 patients. In the patient taking the largest identified amount, 300 mg, the only symptoms reported were drowsiness and slurred speech. In the limited number of patients who were evaluated in hospitals, including the patient taking 300 mg, there were no observations indicating an adverse change in laboratory analytes or ECG. Vital signs were usually within normal limits following overdoses.
  • In postmarketing reports of overdose with olanzapine alone, symptoms have been reported in the majority of cases. In symptomatic patients, symptoms with ≥10% incidence included agitation/aggressiveness, dysarthria, tachycardia, various extrapyramidal symptoms, and reduced level of consciousness ranging from sedation to coma. Among less commonly reported symptoms were the following potentially medically serious reactions: aspiration, cardiopulmonary arrest, cardiac arrhythmias (such as supraventricular tachycardia and 1 patient experiencing sinus pause with spontaneous resumption of normal rhythm), delirium, possible neuroleptic malignant syndrome, respiratory depression/arrest, convulsion, hypertension, and hypotension. Reports of fatality in association with overdose of olanzapine alone have been received. In 1 case of death, the amount of acutely ingested olanzapine was reported to be possibly as low as 450 mg of oral olanzapine; however, in another case, a patient was reported to survive an acute olanzapine ingestion of approximately 2 g of oral olanzapine.

Management

  • For current information on the management of olanzapine overdose, contact a certified poison control center. The possibility of multiple drug involvement should be considered. In case of acute overdosage, establish and maintain an airway and ensure adequate oxygenation and ventilation, which may include intubation. Gastric lavage (after intubation, if patient is unconscious) and administration of activated charcoal together with a laxative should be considered. The administration of activated charcoal (1 g) reduced the Cmax and AUC of oral olanzapine by about 60%. As peak olanzapine levels are not typically obtained until about 6 hours after dosing, charcoal may be a useful treatment for olanzapine overdose.
  • The possibility of obtundation, seizures, or dystonic reaction of the head and neck following overdose may create a risk of aspiration with induced emesis. Cardiovascular monitoring should commence immediately and should include continuous electrocardiographic monitoring to detect possible arrhythmias.
  • There is no specific antidote to olanzapine. Therefore, appropriate supportive measures should be initiated. Hypotension and circulatory collapse should be treated with appropriate measures such as intravenous fluids and/or sympathomimetic agents. (Do not use epinephrine, dopamine, or other sympathomimetics with beta-agonist activity, since beta stimulation may worsen hypotension in the setting of olanzapine-induced alpha blockade.) Close medical supervision and monitoring should continue until the patient recovers.
  • For specific information about overdosage with lithium or valproate, refer to the Overdosage section of the package inserts for these products.For specific information about overdosage with olanzapine and fluoxetine in combination, refer to the Overdosage section of the Symbyax package insert.

Chronic Overdose

There is limited information regarding Chronic Overdose of Olanzapine (oral) in the drug label.

Pharmacology

Template:Px
Template:Px
Olanzapine (oral)
Systematic (IUPAC) name
2-Methyl-4-(4-methyl-1-piperazinyl)-10H-thieno[2,3-b][1,5]benzodiazepine
Identifiers
CAS number 132539-06-1
ATC code N05AH03
PubChem 4585
DrugBank DB00334
Chemical data
Formula Template:OrganicBox atomTemplate:OrganicBox atomTemplate:OrganicBoxTemplate:OrganicBoxTemplate:OrganicBoxTemplate:OrganicBoxTemplate:OrganicBoxTemplate:OrganicBoxTemplate:OrganicBoxTemplate:OrganicBoxTemplate:OrganicBoxTemplate:OrganicBoxTemplate:OrganicBoxTemplate:OrganicBox atomTemplate:OrganicBoxTemplate:OrganicBoxTemplate:OrganicBoxTemplate:OrganicBoxTemplate:OrganicBox atomTemplate:OrganicBoxTemplate:OrganicBoxTemplate:OrganicBoxTemplate:OrganicBox 
Mol. mass 312.439
SMILES eMolecules & PubChem
Physical data
Melt. point 195 °C (383 °F)
Solubility in water Practically insoluble in water mg/mL (20 °C)
Pharmacokinetic data
Bioavailability 87%[1]
Protein binding 93%[2]
Metabolism Hepatic (direct glucuronidation and CYP1A2 mediated oxidation)
Half life 33 hours, 51.8 hours (elderly)[2]
Excretion Urine (57%; 7% as unchanged drug), faeces (30%)[2][3]
Therapeutic considerations
Licence data

US

Pregnancy cat.

B3(AU) C(US)

Legal status

Prescription Only (S4)(AU) POM(UK) [[Prescription drug|Template:Unicode-only]](US)

Routes oral, intramuscular

Mechanism of Action

  • The mechanism of action of olanzapine, as with other drugs having efficacy in schizophrenia, is unknown. However, it has been proposed that this drug’s efficacy in schizophrenia is mediated through a combination of dopamine and serotonin type 2 (5HT2) antagonism. The mechanism of action of olanzapine in the treatment of acute manic or mixed episodes associated with bipolar I disorder is unknown.

Structure

  • Olanzapine USP is an atypical antipsychotic that belongs to the thienobenzodiazepine class. The chemical designation is 2-methyl-4-(4-methyl-1-piperazinyl)-10H-thieno[2,3-b] [1,5]benzodiazepine. The molecular formula is C17H20N4S, which corresponds to a molecular weight of 312.44. The chemical structure is:
File:Olanzapine (oral)26.png
This image is provided by the National Library of Medicine.
  • Olanzapine USP is a yellow crystalline solid, which is practically insoluble in water.
  • Olanzapine tablets USP are intended for oral administration only.
  • Each tablet contains olanzapine USP equivalent to 20 mg (64 µmol). Inactive ingredients are crospovidone, hydroxypropyl cellulose, lactose monohydrate, magnesium stearate, microcrystalline cellulose (Avicel PH 101) and microcrystalline cellulose (Avicel PH 102). The color coating contains hypromellose, polyethylene glycol 400 and titanium dioxide.

Pharmacodynamics

  • Olanzapine binds with high affinity to the following receptors: serotonin 5HT2A/2C, 5HT6 (Ki=4, 11, and 5 nM, respectively), dopamine D1-4 (Ki=11-31 nM), histamine H1 (Ki=7 nM), and adrenergic α1 receptors (Ki=19 nM). Olanzapine is an antagonist with moderate affinity binding for serotonin 5HT3 (Ki=57 nM) and muscarinic M1-5 (Ki=73, 96, 132, 32, and 48 nM, respectively). Olanzapine binds weakly to GABAA, BZD, and β adrenergic receptors (Ki>10 μM).
  • Antagonism at receptors other than dopamine and 5HT2 may explain some of the other therapeutic and side effects of olanzapine. Olanzapine’s antagonism of muscarinic M1-5 receptors may explain its anticholinergic-like effects. Olanzapine’s antagonism of histamine H1 receptors may explain the somnolence observed with this drug. Olanzapine’s antagonism of adrenergic α1 receptors may explain the orthostatic hypotension observed with this drug.

Pharmacokinetics

  • Oral Administration, Monotherapy — Olanzapine is well absorbed and reaches peak concentrations in approximately 6 hours following an oral dose. It is eliminated extensively by first pass metabolism, with approximately 40% of the dose metabolized before reaching the systemic circulation. Food does not affect the rate or extent of olanzapine absorption.
  • Olanzapine displays linear kinetics over the clinical dosing range. Its half-life ranges from 21 to 54 hours (5th to 95th percentile; mean of 30 hr), and apparent plasma clearance ranges from 12 to 47 L/hr (5th to 95th percentile; mean of 25 L/hr). Administration of olanzapine once daily leads to steady-state concentrations in about 1 week that are approximately twice the concentrations after single doses. Plasma concentrations, half-life, and clearance of olanzapine may vary between individuals on the basis of smoking status, gender, and age.
  • Olanzapine is extensively distributed throughout the body, with a volume of distribution of approximately 1000 L. It is 93% bound to plasma proteins over the concentration range of 7 to 1100 ng/mL, binding primarily to albumin and α1-acid glycoprotein.
  • Metabolism and Elimination — Following a single oral dose of 14C labeled olanzapine, 7% of the dose of olanzapine was recovered in the urine as unchanged drug, indicating that olanzapine is highly metabolized. Approximately 57% and 30% of the dose was recovered in the urine and feces, respectively. In the plasma, olanzapine accounted for only 12% of the AUC for total radioactivity, indicating significant exposure to metabolites. After multiple dosing, the major circulating metabolites were the 10-N-glucuronide, present at steady state at 44% of the concentration of olanzapine, and 4´-N-desmethyl olanzapine, present at steady state at 31% of the concentration of olanzapine. Both metabolites lack pharmacological activity at the concentrations observed. Direct glucuronidation and cytochrome P450 (CYP) mediated oxidation are the primary metabolic pathways for olanzapine. In vitro studies suggest that CYPs 1A2 and 2D6, and the flavin-containing monooxygenase system are involved in olanzapine oxidation. CYP2D6 mediated oxidation appears to be a minor metabolic pathway in vivo, because the clearance of olanzapine is not reduced in subjects who are deficient in this enzyme.
  • Specific Populations
  • Renal Impairment — Because olanzapine is highly metabolized before excretion and only 7% of the drug is excreted unchanged, renal dysfunction alone is unlikely to have a major impact on the pharmacokinetics of olanzapine. The pharmacokinetic characteristics of olanzapine were similar in patients with severe renal impairment and normal subjects, indicating that dosage adjustment based upon the degree of renal impairment is not required. In addition, olanzapine is not removed by dialysis. The effect of renal impairment on metabolite elimination has not been studied.
  • Hepatic Impairment — Although the presence of hepatic impairment may be expected to reduce the clearance of olanzapine, a study of the effect of impaired liver function in subjects (n=6) with clinically significant (Childs Pugh Classification A and B) cirrhosis revealed little effect on the pharmacokinetics of olanzapine.
  • Geriatric — In a study involving 24 healthy subjects, the mean elimination half-life of olanzapine was about 1.5 times greater in elderly (≥65 years) than in non-elderly subjects (<65 years). Caution should be used in dosing the elderly, especially if there are other factors that might additively influence drug metabolism and/or pharmacodynamic sensitivity.
  • Gender — Clearance of olanzapine is approximately 30% lower in women than in men. There were, however, no apparent differences between men and women in effectiveness or adverse effects. Dosage modifications based on gender should not be needed.
  • Smoking Status — Olanzapine clearance is about 40% higher in smokers than in nonsmokers, although dosage modifications are not routinely recommended.
  • Race — In vivo studies have shown that exposures are similar among Japanese, Chinese and Caucasians, especially after normalization for body weight differences. Dosage modifications for race are, therefore, not recommended.
  • Combined Effects — The combined effects of age, smoking, and gender could lead to substantial pharmacokinetic differences in populations. The clearance in young smoking males, for example, may be 3 times higher than that in elderly nonsmoking females. Dosing modification may be necessary in patients who exhibit a combination of factors that may result in slower metabolism of olanzapine.
  • Adolescents (ages 13 to 17 years) —In clinical studies, most adolescents were nonsmokers and this population had a lower average body weight, which resulted in higher average olanzapine exposure compared to adults.

Nonclinical Toxicology

  • Carcinogenesis — Oral carcinogenicity studies were conducted in mice and rats. Olanzapine was administered to mice in two 78-week studies at doses of 3, 10, 30/20 mg/kg/day (equivalent to 0.8-5 times the maximum recommended human daily oral dose on a mg/m2 basis) and 0.25, 2, 8 mg/kg/day (equivalent to 0.06-2 times the maximum recommended human daily oral dose on a mg/m2 basis). Rats were dosed for 2 years at doses of 0.25, 1, 2.5, 4 mg/kg/day (males) and 0.25, 1, 4, 8 mg/kg/day (females) (equivalent to 0.13-2 and 0.13-4 times the maximum recommended human daily oral dose on a mg/m2 basis, respectively). The incidence of liver hemangiomas and hemangiosarcomas was significantly increased in 1 mouse study in female mice dosed at 8 mg/kg/day (2 times the maximum recommended human daily oral dose on a mg/m2 basis). These tumors were not increased in another mouse study in females dosed at 10 or 30/20 mg/kg/day (2-5 times the maximum recommended human daily oral dose on a mg/m2 basis); in this study, there was a high incidence of early mortalities in males of the 30/20 mg/kg/day group. The incidence of mammary gland adenomas and adenocarcinomas was significantly increased in female mice dosed at ≥2 mg/kg/day and in female rats dosed at ≥4 mg/kg/day (0.5 and 2 times the maximum recommended human daily oral dose on a mg/m2 basis, respectively). Antipsychotic drugs have been shown to chronically elevate prolactin levels in rodents. Serum prolactin levels were not measured during the olanzapine carcinogenicity studies; however, measurements during subchronic toxicity studies showed that olanzapine elevated serum prolactin levels up to 4-fold in rats at the same doses used in the carcinogenicity study. An increase in mammary gland neoplasms has been found in rodents after chronic administration of other antipsychotic drugs and is considered to be prolactin mediated. The relevance for human risk of the finding of prolactin mediated endocrine tumors in rodents is unknown.
  • Mutagenesis — No evidence of genotoxic potential for olanzapine was found in the Ames reverse mutation test, in vivo micronucleus test in mice, the chromosomal aberration test in Chinese hamster ovary cells, unscheduled DNA synthesis test in rat hepatocytes, induction of forward mutation test in mouse lymphoma cells, or in vivo sister chromatid exchange test in bone marrow of Chinese hamsters.
  • Impairment of Fertility — In an oral fertility and reproductive performance study in rats, male mating performance, but not fertility, was impaired at a dose of 22.4 mg/kg/day and female fertility was decreased at a dose of 3 mg/kg/day (11 and 1.5 times the maximum recommended human daily oral dose on a mg/m2 basis, respectively). Discontinuance of olanzapine treatment reversed the effects on male mating performance. In female rats, the precoital period was increased and the mating index reduced at 5 mg/kg/day (2.5 times the maximum recommended human daily oral dose on a mg/m2 basis). Diestrous was prolonged and estrous delayed at 1.1 mg/kg/day (0.6 times the maximum recommended human daily oral dose on a mg/m2 basis); therefore olanzapine may produce a delay in ovulation.
  • Animal Pharmacology and/or Toxicology
  • In animal studies with olanzapine, the principal hematologic findings were reversible peripheral cytopenias in individual dogs dosed at 10 mg/kg (17 times the maximum recommended human daily oral dose on a mg/m2 basis), dose-related decreases in lymphocytes and neutrophils in mice, and lymphopenia in rats. A few dogs treated with 10 mg/kg developed reversible neutropenia and/or reversible hemolytic anemia between 1 and 10 months of treatment. Dose-related decreases in lymphocytes and neutrophils were seen in mice given doses of 10 mg/kg (equal to 2 times the maximum recommended human daily oral dose on a mg/m2 basis) in studies of 3 months’ duration. Nonspecific lymphopenia, consistent with decreased body weight gain, occurred in rats receiving 22.5 mg/kg (11 times the maximum recommended human daily oral dose on a mg/m2 basis) for 3 months or 16 mg/kg (8 times the maximum recommended human daily oral dose on a mg/m2 basis) for 6 or 12 months. No evidence of bone marrow cytotoxicity was found in any of the species examined. Bone marrows were normocellular or hypercellular, indicating that the reductions in circulating blood cells were probably due to peripheral (non-marrow) factors.

Clinical Studies

  • When using olanzapine and fluoxetine in combination, also refer to the Clinical Studies section of the package insert for Symbyax.
Schizophrenia
  • Adults
  • The efficacy of oral olanzapine in the treatment of Schizophrenia was established in 2 short-term (6-week) controlled trials of adult inpatients who met DSM III-R criteria for Schizophrenia. A single haloperidol arm was included as a comparative treatment in 1 of the 2 trials, but this trial did not compare these 2 drugs on the full range of clinically relevant doses for both.
  • Several instruments were used for assessing psychiatric signs and symptoms in these studies, among them the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS), a multi-item inventory of general psychopathology traditionally used to evaluate the effects of drug treatment in Schizophrenia. The BPRS psychosis cluster (conceptual disorganization, hallucinatory behavior, suspiciousness, and unusual thought content) is considered a particularly useful subset for assessing actively psychotic schizophrenic patients. A second traditional assessment, the Clinical Global Impression (CGI), reflects the impression of a skilled observer, fully familiar with the manifestations of Schizophrenia, about the overall clinical state of the patient. In addition, 2 more recently developed scales were employed; these included the 30-item Positive and Negative Symptoms Scale (PANSS), in which are embedded the 18 items of the BPRS, and the Scale for Assessing Negative Symptoms (SANS). The trial summaries below focus on the following outcomes: PANSS total and/or BPRS total; BPRS psychosis cluster; PANSS negative subscale or SANS; and CGI Severity. The results of the trials follow:
    • 1) In a 6-week, placebo-controlled trial (n=149) involving 2 fixed olanzapine doses of 1 and 10 mg/day (once daily schedule), olanzapine, at 10 mg/day (but not at 1 mg/day), was superior toplacebo on the PANSS total score (also on the extracted BPRS total), on the BPRS psychosis cluster, on the PANSS Negative subscale, and on CGI Severity.
    • 2) In a 6-week, placebo-controlled trial (n=253) involving 3 fixed dose ranges of olanzapine (5 ± 2.5 mg/day, 10 ± 2.5 mg/day, and 15 ± 2.5 mg/day) on a once daily schedule, the 2 highest olanzapine dose groups (actual mean doses of 12 and 16 mg/day, respectively) were superior to placebo on BPRS total score, BPRS psychosis cluster, and CGI severity score; the highest olanzapine dose group was superior to placebo on the SANS. There was no clear advantage for the high-dose group over the medium-dose group.
    • 3) In a longer-term trial, adult outpatients (n=326) who predominantly met DSM-IV criteria for Schizophrenia and who remained stable on olanzapine during open-label treatment for at least 8 weeks were randomized to continuation on their current olanzapine doses (ranging from 10 to 20 mg/day) or to placebo. The follow-up period to observe patients for relapse, defined in terms of increases in BPRS positive symptoms or hospitalization, was planned for 12 months, however, criteria were met for stopping the trial early due to an excess of placebo relapses compared to olanzapine relapses, and olanzapine was superior to placebo on time to relapse, the primary outcome for this study. Thus, olanzapine was more effective than placebo at maintaining efficacy in patients stabilized for approximately 8 weeks and followed for an observation period of up to 8 months.
  • Examination of population subsets (race and gender) did not reveal any differential responsiveness on the basis of these subgroupings.
  • Adolescents
  • The efficacy of oral olanzapine in the acute treatment of schizophrenia in adolescents (ages 13 to 17 years) was established in a 6-week double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized trial of inpatients and outpatients with schizophrenia (n=107) who met diagnostic criteria according to DSM-IV-TR and confirmed by the Kiddie Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School Aged Children-Present and Lifetime Version (K-SADS-PL).
  • The primary rating instrument used for assessing psychiatric signs and symptoms in this trial was the Anchored Version of the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale for Children (BPRS-C) total score.
  • In this flexible-dose trial, olanzapine 2.5 to 20 mg/day (mean modal dose 12.5 mg/day, mean dose of 11.1 mg/day) was more effective than placebo in the treatment of adolescents diagnosed with schizophrenia, as supported by the statistically significantly greater mean reduction in BPRS-C total score for patients in the olanzapine treatment group than in the placebo group.
  • While there is no body of evidence available to answer the question of how long the adolescent patient treated with olanzapine should be maintained, maintenance efficacy can be extrapolated from adult data along with comparisons of olanzapine pharmacokinetic parameters in adult and adolescent patients. It is generally recommended that responding patients be continued beyond the acute response, but at the lowest dose needed to maintain remission. Patients should be periodically reassessed to determine the need for maintenance treatment.
Bipolar I Disorder (Manic or Mixed Episodes)
  • Adults
  • Monotherapy — The efficacy of oral olanzapine in the treatment of manic or mixed episodes was established in 2 short-term (one 3-week and one 4-week) placebo-controlled trials in adult patients who met the DSM-IV criteria for Bipolar I Disorder with manic or mixed episodes. These trials included patients with or without psychotic features and with or without a rapid-cycling course.
  • The primary rating instrument used for assessing manic symptoms in these trials was the Young Mania Rating Scale (Y-MRS), an 11-item clinician-rated scale traditionally used to assess the degree of manic symptomatology (irritability, disruptive/aggressive behavior, sleep, elevated mood, speech, increased activity, sexual interest, language/thought disorder, thought content, appearance, and insight) in a range from 0 (no manic features) to 60 (maximum score). The primary outcome in these trials was change from baseline in the Y-MRS total score. The results of the trials follow:
    • (1) In one 3-week placebo-controlled trial (n=67) which involved a dose range of olanzapine (5-20 mg/day, once daily, starting at 10 mg/day), olanzapine was superior to placebo in the reduction of Y-MRS total score. In an identically designed trial conducted simultaneously with the first trial, olanzapine demonstrated a similar treatment difference, but possibly due to sample size and site variability, was not shown to be superior to placebo on this outcome.
    • (2) In a 4-week placebo-controlled trial (n=115) which involved a dose range of olanzapine (5-20 mg/day, once daily, starting at 15 mg/day), olanzapine was superior to placebo in the reduction of Y-MRS total score.
    • (3) In another trial, 361 patients meeting DSM-IV criteria for a manic or mixed episode of Bipolar I Disorder who had responded during an initial open-label treatment phase for about 2 weeks, on average, to olanzapine 5 to 20 mg/day were randomized to either continuation of olanzapine at their same dose (n=225) or to placebo (n=136), for observation of relapse. Approximately 50% of the patients had discontinued from the olanzapine group by day 59 and 50% of the placebo group had discontinued by day 23 of double-blind treatment. Response during the open-label phase was defined by having a decrease of the Y-MRS total score to ≤12 and HAM-D 21 to ≤8. Relapse during the double-blind phase was defined as an increase of the Y-MRS or HAM-D 21 total score to ≥15, or being hospitalized for either mania or depression. In the randomized phase, patients receiving continued olanzapine experienced a significantly longer time to relapse.
  • Adjunct to Lithium or Valproate — The efficacy of oral olanzapine with concomitant lithium or valproate in the treatment of acute manic or mixed episodes was established in 2 controlled trials in patients who met the DSM-IV criteria for Bipolar I Disorder with manic or mixed episodes. These trials included patients with or without psychotic features and with or without a rapid-cycling course. The results of the trials follow:
    • (1) In one 6-week placebo-controlled combination trial, 175 outpatients on lithium or valproate therapy with inadequately controlled manic or mixed symptoms (Y-MRS ≥16) were randomized to receive either olanzapine or placebo, in combination with their original therapy. Olanzapine (in a dose range of 5-20 mg/day, once daily, starting at 10 mg/day) combined with lithium or valproate (in a therapeutic range of 0.6 mEq/L to 1.2 mEq/L or 50 μg/ mL to 125 μg/mL, respectively) was superior to lithium or valproate alone in the reduction of Y-MRS total score.
    • (2) In a second 6-week placebo-controlled combination trial, 169 outpatients on lithium or valproate therapy with inadequately controlled manic or mixed symptoms (Y-MRS ≥16) were randomized to receive either olanzapine or placebo, in combination with their original therapy. Olanzapine (in a dose range of 5-20 mg/day, once daily, starting at 10 mg/day) combined with lithium or valproate (in a therapeutic range of 0.6 mEq/L to 1.2 mEq/L or 50 μg/mL to 125 μg/mL, respectively) was superior to lithium or valproate alone in the reduction of Y-MRS total score.
  • Adolescents
  • Acute Monotherapy — The efficacy of oral olanzapine in the treatment of acute manic or mixed episodes in adolescents (ages 13 to 17 years) was established in a 3-week, double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized trial of adolescent inpatients and outpatients who met the diagnostic criteria for manic or mixed episodes associated with bipolar I disorder (with or without psychotic features) according to the DSM-IV-TR (n=161). Diagnosis was confirmed by the K-SADS-PL.
  • The primary rating instrument used for assessing manic symptoms in this trial was the Adolescent Structured Young-Mania Rating Scale (Y-MRS) total score.
  • In this flexible-dose trial, olanzapine 2.5 to 20 mg/day (mean modal dose 10.7 mg/day, mean dose of 8.9 mg/day) was more effective than placebo in the treatment of adolescents with manic or mixed episodes associated with bipolar I disorder, as supported by the statistically significantly greater mean reduction in Y-MRS total score for patients in the olanzapine treatment group than in the placebo group.
  • While there is no body of evidence available to answer the question of how long the adolescent patient treated with olanzapine should be maintained, maintenance efficacy can be extrapolated from adult data along with comparisons of olanzapine pharmacokinetic parameters in adult and adolescent patients. It is generally recommended that responding patients be continued beyond the acute response, but at the lowest dose needed to maintain remission. Patients should be periodically reassessed to determine the need for maintenance treatment.

How Supplied

  • Olanzapine Tablets USP, 20 mg are white, film coated, oval, biconvex tablets with “R” embossed on one side and “0168” on other side and 20 are supplied in bottles of 30, 100, and 500’s.
  • Bottles of 30 NDC 0093-5105-56
  • Bottles of 100 NDC 093-5105-01
  • Bottles of 500 NDC 0093-5105-05
  • Storage and Handling
  • Store olanzapine tablets at controlled room temperature, 20° to 25°C (68° to 77°F). The USP defines controlled room temperature as a temperature maintained thermostatically that encompasses the usual and customary working environment of 20° to 25°C (68° to 77°F); that results in a mean kinetic temperature calculated to be not more than 25°C; and that allows for excursions between 15° and 30°C (59° and 86°F) that are experienced in pharmacies, hospitals, and warehouses.
  • Protect olanzapine tablets from light and moisture.

Storage

There is limited information regarding Olanzapine (oral) Storage in the drug label.

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Patient Counseling Information

  • Information on Medication Guide
  • Prescribers or other health professionals should inform patients, their families, and their caregivers about the potential benefits and potential risks associated with treatment with olanzapine, and should counsel them in its appropriate use. A patient Medication Guide is available for olanzapine. Prescribers or other health professionals should instruct patients, their families, and their caregivers to read the Medication Guide and should assist them in understanding its contents. Patients should be given the opportunity to discuss the contents of the Medication Guide and to obtain answers to any questions they may have.
  • Elderly Patients with Dementia-Related Psychosis: Increased Mortality and Cerebrovascular Adverse Events (CVAE), Including Stroke
  • Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome (NMS)
  • Hyperglycemia
  • Patients should be advised of the potential risk of hyperglycemia-related adverse reactions. Patients should be monitored regularly for worsening of glucose control. Patients who have diabetes should follow their doctor’s instructions about how often to check their blood sugar while taking olanzapine.
  • Hyperlipidemia
  • Patients should be counseled that hyperlipidemia has occurred during treatment with olanzapine. Patients should have their lipid profile monitored regularly.
  • Weight Gain
  • Patients should be counseled that weight gain has occurred during treatment with olanzapine. Patients should have their weight monitored regularly .
  • Orthostatic Hypotension
  • Patients should be advised of the risk of orthostatic hypotension, especially during the period of initial dose titration and in association with the use of concomitant drugs that may potentiate the orthostatic effect of olanzapine, e.g., diazepam or alcohol. Patients should be advised to change positions carefully to help prevent orthostatic hypotension, and to lie down if they feel dizzy or faint, until they feel better. Patients should be advised to call their doctor if they experience any of the following signs and symptoms associated with orthostatic hypotension: dizziness, fast or slow heart beat, or fainting.
  • Potential for Cognitive and Motor Impairment
  • Because olanzapine has the potential to impair judgment, thinking, or motor skills, patients should be cautioned about operating hazardous machinery, including automobiles, until they are reasonably certain that olanzapine therapy does not affect them adversely.
  • Body Temperature Regulation
  • Patients should be advised regarding appropriate care in avoiding overheating and dehydration. Patients should be advised to call their doctor right away if they become severely ill and have some or all of these symptoms of dehydration: sweating too much or not at all, dry mouth, feeling very hot, feeling thirsty, not able to produce urine.
  • Concomitant Medication
  • Patients should be advised to inform their physicians if they are taking, or plan to take, Symbyax® (olanzapine and fluoxetine hydrochloride). Patients should also be advised to inform their physicians if they are taking, plan to take, or have stopped taking any prescription or over-the-counter drugs, including herbal supplements, since there is a potential for interactions.
  • Alcohol
  • Patients should be advised to avoid alcohol while taking olanzapine.
  • Use in Specific Populations
  • Pregnancy — Patients should be advised to notify their physician if they become pregnant or intend to become pregnant during threrapy with olanzapine.
  • Nursing Mothers — Patients should be advised not to breast-feed an infant if they are taking olanzapine.
  • Pediatric Use — Olanzapine is indicated for treatment of schizophrenia and manic or mixed episodes associated with bipolar I disorder in adolescents 13 to 17 years of age. Compared to patients from adult clinical trials, adolescents were likely to gain more weight, experience increased sedation, and have greater increases in total cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL cholesterol, prolactin, and hepatic aminotransferase levels. Patients should be counseled about the potential long-term risks associated with olanzapine and advised that these risks may lead them to consider other drugs first. Safety and effectiveness of olanzapine in patients under 13 years of age have not been established.
  • Need for Comprehensive Treatment Program in Pediatric Patients
  • Olanzapine is indicated as an integral part of a total treatment program for pediatric patients with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder that may include other measures (psychological, educational, social) for patients with the disorder. Effectiveness and safety of olanzapine have not been established in pediatric patients less than 13 years of age. Atypical antipsychotics are not intended for use in the pediatric patient who exhibits symptoms secondary to environmental factors and/or other primary psychiatric disorders. Appropriate educational placement is essential and psychosocial intervention is often helpful. The decision to prescribe atypical antipsychotic medication will depend upon the physician’s assessment of the chronicity and severity of the patient’s symptoms.
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Precautions with Alcohol

  • Alcohol-Olanzapine (oral) interaction has not been established. Talk to your doctor about the effects of taking alcohol with this medication.

Brand Names

  • OLANZAPINE®[4]

Look-Alike Drug Names

  • ZyPREXA® — CeleXA®[5]
  • OLANZapine® — QUEtiapine®[5]
  • ZyPREXA® — Reprexain®[5]
  • ZyPREXA Zydis® — Zelapar (Zydis formulation)®[5]
  • ZyPREXA® — Zestril®[5]
  • Zyprexa® — Zyprexa Relprevv®[5]
  • ZyPREXA® — ZyrTEC®[5]

Drug Shortage Status

Price

References

The contents of this FDA label are provided by the National Library of Medicine.

  1. Burton, Michael E.; Shaw, Leslie M.; Schentag, Jerome J.; Evans, William E. (May 1, 2005). Applied Pharmacokinetics & Pharmacodynamics: Principles of Therapeutic Drug Monitoring (4th ed.). Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. p. 815. ISBN 978-0-7817-4431-7.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2
  3. "OLANZAPINE- olanzapine tablet, film coated".<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  4. 5.0 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.5 5.6 "http://www.ismp.org". External link in |title= (help)<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>