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chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 16
Alt. symbolsSCYA16, NCC-4, SCYL4, LEC, HCC-4, LMC, LCC-1, CKb12, Mtn-1
Other data
LocusChr. 17 q11.2

Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 16 (CCL16) is a small cytokine belonging to the CC chemokine family that is known under several pseudonyms, including Liver-expressed chemokine (LEC) and Monotactin-1 (MTN-1). This chemokine is expressed by the liver, thymus, and spleen and is chemoattractive for monocytes and lymphocytes.[1] Cellular expression of CCL16 can be strongly induced in monocytes by IL-10, IFN-γ and bacterial lipopolysaccharide. Its gene is located on chromosome 17, in humans, among a cluster of other CC chemokines.[2] CCL16 elicits its effects on cells by interacting with cell surface chemokine receptors such as CCR1, CCR2, CCR5 and CCR8.[3][4]

C-C motif chemokine ligand 16 has been found in high levels in the blood plasma of humans.[5] CCL16 may be useful for trafficking eosinophils. This ligand has been found to have a functional affinity for H4 receptors that are expressed by eosinophils and mast cells.[5] This chemokine has been shown to suppress rapid proliferation of myeloid progenitor cells.[6]


  1. Youn BS, Zhang S, Broxmeyer HE, Antol K, Fraser MJ, Hangoc G, Kwon BS (June 1998). "Isolation and characterization of LMC, a novel lymphocyte and monocyte chemoattractant human CC chemokine, with myelosuppressive activity". Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications. 247 (2): 217–22. doi:10.1006/bbrc.1998.8762. PMID 9642106.
  2. Nomiyama H, Fukuda S, Iio M, Tanase S, Miura R, Yoshie O (March 1999). "Organization of the chemokine gene cluster on human chromosome 17q11.2 containing the genes for CC chemokine MPIF-1, HCC-2, HCC-1, LEC, and RANTES". Journal of Interferon & Cytokine Research : the Official Journal of the International Society for Interferon and Cytokine Research. 19 (3): 227–34. doi:10.1089/107999099314153. PMID 10213461.
  3. Nomiyama H, Hieshima K, Nakayama T, Sakaguchi T, Fujisawa R, Tanase S, Nishiura H, Matsuno K, Takamori H, Tabira Y, Yamamoto T, Miura R, Yoshie O (August 2001). "Human CC chemokine liver-expressed chemokine/CCL16 is a functional ligand for CCR1, CCR2 and CCR5, and constitutively expressed by hepatocytes". International Immunology. 13 (8): 1021–9. PMID 11470772.
  4. Howard OM, Dong HF, Shirakawa AK, Oppenheim JJ (August 2000). "LEC induces chemotaxis and adhesion by interacting with CCR1 and CCR8". Blood. 96 (3): 840–5. PMID 10910894.
  5. 5.0 5.1 Nakayama T, Kato Y, Hieshima K, Nagakubo D, Kunori Y, Fujisawa T, Yoshie O (August 2004). "Liver-expressed chemokine/CC chemokine ligand 16 attracts eosinophils by interacting with histamine H4 receptor". Journal of Immunology. 173 (3): 2078–83. doi:10.4049/jimmunol.173.3.2078. PMID 15265943.
  6. "CCL16 C-C Motif Chemokine Ligand 16 [Homo Sapiens (Human)] Gene". National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine.