Lymphadenopathy causes

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Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1]; Associate Editor(s)-in-Chief: Amandeep Singh M.D.[2]Raviteja Guddeti, M.B.B.S. [3]Delband Yekta Moazami, M.D.[4] Ogechukwu Hannah Nnabude, MD


The most common causes of lymphadenopathy include infections, cancers, and connective tissue disorders. The enlargement of the lymph nodes may be of infectious, bacterial, malignant, protozoan origin and may also be caused by live vaccines. Viral infections such as Epstein-Barr virus and cytomegalovirus cause infectious mononucleosis. Yersinia pestis causes swelling of the lymph node so large that it can be seen under the skin, which causes the bubonic plague. These lymph nodes can become necrotic and are called buboes. Cat-scratch disease, cutaneous anthrax, and tuberculous lymphadenitis are other bacterial infections. African sleeping sickness, Chagas' disease, and toxoplasmosis are protozoal infections. Neoplastic causes of lymphadenopathy are primary and secondary. Hodgkin lymphoma and non-Hodgkin lymphoma give lymphadenopathy in all or a few lymph nodes. Secondary: metastasis, Virchow's Node, neuroblastoma, and chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Autoimmune causes include systemic lupus erythematosus and rheumatoid arthritis may have generalized lymphadenopathy.


Common Causes

Common causes of lymphadenopathy may include:

Causes by Organ System

Cardiovascular Apo a-i deficiency
Chemical/Poisoning Anthrax, Black widow spider venom, Zinc
Dental Lip cancer
Dermatologic Aphthous stomatitis, Asymmetric periflexural exanthem , Dermatomyositis, Erysipelas, Erythroderma, Gingivostomatitis, Infantile papular acrodermatitis, Leprosy, Mastitis, Measles, Melanoma, Mumps, Sarcoidosis, Spotted fevers, Yaws
Drug Side Effect Allopurinol, Atenolol, Bcg vaccine, Captopril, Carbamazepine, Cephalosporins, Certolizumab pegol, Hydralazine, Infliximab, Oxaprozin, Penicillin, Penicillium marneffei, Phenytoin, Pinta, Pneumococcal vaccine 13-valent  , Primidone, Pyrimethamine, Quinidine, Sulfonamides, Sulindac, Tiagabine, Typhoid vaccination
Ear Nose Throat Aphthous stomatitis, Kikuchi's disease, Lymphangioma, Lymphangitis, Lymphatic filariasis, Lymphoma, Malignant lymphoma, Mesenteric adenitis, Sinus histiocytosis, Streptococcal pharyngitis, Vincent's angina
Endocrine Castleman's disease, Chediak-higashi syndrome, Hyperthyroidism
Environmental No underlying causes
Gastroenterologic Brucellosis, Colorectal cancer, Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis, Stomach cancer, Whipple's disease
Genetic Chediak-higashi syndrome, Churg-strauss syndrome, Faisalabad histiocytosis, Familial alphalipoprotein deficiency, Familial hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis, Familial histiocytic reticulosis, Griscelli disease, Lipogranulomatosis, Rosai-dorfman disease, Siccardi syndrome, Sphingomyelinase deficiency, Wt limb blood syndrome, X-linked agammaglobulinaemia, X-linked lymphoproliferative syndrome
Hematologic Acute lymphatic leukemia, Acute lymphoblastic leukemia, Acute lymphocytic leukemia, Addison's disease, Adult t cell leukemia, Apo a-i deficiency, Autoimmune haemolytic anaemia, Autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome type 1, Caspase-8 deficiency, Chancroid, Chronic lymphatic leukemia, Chronic lymphocytic leukemia, Churg-strauss syndrome, Cutaneous t cell lymphoma, Familial alphalipoprotein deficiency, Familial hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis, Familial histiocytic reticulosis, Hairy cell leukaemia, Hemoblastosis, Histiocytosis x, Hodgkin's lymphoma, Hyperimmunoglobulinemia d , Kawasaki disease, Large granular lymphocyte leukemia, Lassa fever, Leukemia, Macroglobulinemia, Myeloproliferative disorder, Non-hodgkin's lymphoma, Plasma cell leukemia, Primary autoimmune haemolytic anaemia, Pseudolymphoma, Septicaemia, Siccardi syndrome, Sinus histiocytosis, Waldenström macroglobulinemia, Yersinia pestis
Iatrogenic Bcg vaccine, Pneumococcal vaccine 13-valent  , Radiotherapy, Typhoid vaccination
Infectious Disease Bacteria:

Anthrax, Borrelia burgdorferi, Boutonneuse fever, Brucellosis, Cat scratch disease, Congenital tuberculosis, Erysipelas, Granuloma inguinale, Lepromatous leprosy, Listeriosis, Lymphogranuloma venereum,Mastitis, Moraxella catarrhalis, Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare, Mycobacterium chelonei, Pinta,Plague, Rat-bite fever, Rickettsiae, Scrub typhus, Sennetsu fever, Septicaemia, Spotted fevers,Streptococcal tonsillitis, Syphilis, Three-day fever, Tuberculosis, Tularemia, Typhus fever, Vincent's angina, Yaws, Yersinia pestis


AIDS, Cowpox, Coxsackie virus, Cytomegalovirus infection, Dengue, German Measles/Rubella, Hepatitis A, Hepatitis B, Herpes simplex, Infectious mononucleosis, Influenza, Lassa fever, Measles, Mumps,Smallpox, Varicella, Western equine encephalitis


Coccidioidomycosis, Blastomycosis, Histoplasmosis, Sporotrichosis


African Sleeping sickness, Chagas' disease, Congenital Toxoplasmosis, Filaria, Lymphatic filariasis,Onchocerciasis, Opisthorchiasis, Paracoccidioidomycosis, Rhabditida Infections, Toxoplasmosis,Trypanosomiasis, Visceral leishmaniasis /Kala-azar, Wuchereria bancrofti

Musculoskeletal/Orthopedic Dermatomyositis, Rhabdomyosarcoma, Rheumatoid arthritis
Neurologic African sleeping sickness, Western equine encephalitis
Nutritional/Metabolic Lipogranulomatosis
Obstetric/Gynecologic Breast cancer, Lymphogranuloma venereum
Oncologic Acute lymphatic leukemia, Acute lymphoblastic leukemia, Acute lymphocytic leukemia, Addison's disease, Adult t cell leukemia, Breast cancer, Chronic lymphatic leukemia, Chronic lymphocytic leukemia, Colorectal cancer, Cutaneous t cell lymphoma, Cystic hygroma, Epstein-barr virus, Gamma heavy chain disease, Granuloma inguinale, Hemangiopericytoma, Hodgkin's lymphoma, Inflammatory pseudotumor, Kikuchi's disease, Leukemia, Lip cancer, Lymphangioma, Lymphoma, Malignant lymphoma, Melanoma, Merkel cell carcinoma, Myeloproliferative disorder, Non-hodgkin's lymphoma, Pancoast tumor, Plasma cell leukemia, Primary autoimmune haemolytic anaemia, Pseudolymphoma, Reticuloendotheliosis, Rhabdomyosarcoma, Secondary deposits from a local malignancy, Stomach cancer, Systemic mastocytosis, Waldenström macroglobulinemia
Ophthalmologic No underlying causes
Overdose/Toxicity No underlying causes
Psychiatric No underlying causes
Pulmonary Congenital tuberculosis, Extrinsic allergic alveolitis, Histoplasmosis, Pancoast tumor, Pneumoconiosis, Tuberculosis
Renal/Electrolyte No underlying causes
Rheumatology/Immunology/Allergy Amyloidosis, Extrinsic allergic alveolitis, Hemangiopericytoma, Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis, Hemophagocytic reticulosis, Juvenile chronic arthritis, Rheumatoid arthritis, Rheumatoid disease, Still's disease, Systemic lupus erythematosus
Sexual Aids, Bejel, Chancroid, Herpes simplex, Herpes virus 2, Hiv-1 disease, Human immunodeficiency virus, Secondary syphilis, Sexually transmitted diseases, Syphilis
Trauma Snake bite , Spider bite
Urologic Granuloma inguinale
Miscellaneous Tang hsi ryu syndrome
  • Common causes of lymphadenopathy, include:[3][4]
  • Infections (acute suppurative)
  • Reactive

Causes in Alphabetical Order

Various causes in alphabetical order:[5][6]

Bihilar Lymphadenopathy


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