Mucormycosis pathophysiology

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Mucormycosis Microchapters


Patient Information


Historical Perspective




Differentiating Mucormycosis from other Diseases

Epidemiology and Demographics

Risk Factors


Natural History, Complications and Prognosis


Diagnostic Criteria

History and Symptoms

Physical Examination

Laboratory Findings

X Ray



Other Imaging Findings

Other Diagnostic Studies


Medical Therapy


Primary Prevention

Secondary Prevention

Cost-Effectiveness of Therapy

Future or Investigational Therapies

Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1]; Associate Editor(s)-in-Chief: Syed Hassan A. Kazmi BSc, MD [2]


Mucormycosis is a fatal fungal infection occuring most commonly in immunocompromised and diabetic patients. Impairment of host defense mechanisms leads to development of the fungus within the human body. Iron is important for growth of the mucorales fungus. Thrombosis with eventual necrosis is the end point in mucormycosis infection. Glucose regulated protein 78 receptor plays a vital part in helping the organism attach to endothelial cells and for subsequent vascular invasion and dissemination. On microscopic examination, the hyphae of mucorales are found to have few septations, are non-pigmented and branch at right angle.






Gross Pathology

  • The lesions in cutaneous or rhinocerebral mucormycosis appear varied in size, and ranging from raised red nodules or plaques, which sometimes produce purulent material, to ulcerated lesions with central cavitation, red exuding centres and raised epidermal margins.
  • Older lesions may be covered either partly or fully by thickened and irregular epidermis. There may be a black eschar indicating necrosis and ischemia.[14]

Microscopic Pathology

Gross appearance of mucormycosis in the right orbit, periorbital skin, and maxillary sinuses

Hemotoxylin and Eosin stain histopathology showing necrotic and edematous tissue with neutrophilic inflitrate and hyphae


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