Mucormycosis history and symptoms
Signs and symptoms of mucormycosis differ according to the organ system involvement. Severe infection of the facial sinuses, which may extend into the brain, is the most common presentation leading to proptosis, redness of skin above sinuses, mental status changes, dark scabbing in nasal cavities, fever and headache. Pulmonary mucormycosis may lead to development of cough, hemoptysis with or without chest pain and fever. Gastrointestinal mucormycosis presents as abdominal pain, hematemesis, diarrhea or constipation.
Obtaining history is an important factor in making a diagnosis of mucormycosis since the signs and symptoms may be non-specific and mimic other conditions with similar presentations. Most mucormycosis infections are life-threatening, and develop in the presence of other risk factors such as diabetic ketoacidosis and neutropenia. Severe infection of the facial sinuses, which may extend into the brain, is the most common presentation. Pulmonary, cutaneous, and gastrointestinal (GI) infections are also recognized.
Symptoms of rhinocerebral mucormycosis include:
- Eyes that swell and stick out (protrude)
- Dark scabbing in nasal cavities
- Mental status changes
- Redness of skin above sinuses
- Sinus pain or congestion
Symptoms of gastrointestinal mucormycosis include:
- A single, painful, hardened area of skin that may have a blackened center.
Less Common Symptoms
- Maxillary necrosis (The infection begins in the nose and paranasal sinuses due to inhalation of fungal spores. The infection can spread to orbital and intracranial structures either by angioinvasion. The fungus invades the arteries leading to thrombosis and occlusion that subsequently causes necrosis of bone and soft tissues)
- Ophthalmoplegia (If there is invasion of the cavernous sinus by rhinocerebral disease)
- Paralysis (Secondary to intracranial hemorrhage causes by cerebral invasion)
- Palpebral edema
- Facial edema