Mucormycosis natural history, complications and prognosis

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Mucormycosis Microchapters


Patient Information


Historical Perspective




Differentiating Mucormycosis from other Diseases

Epidemiology and Demographics

Risk Factors


Natural History, Complications and Prognosis


Diagnostic Criteria

History and Symptoms

Physical Examination

Laboratory Findings

X Ray



Other Imaging Findings

Other Diagnostic Studies


Medical Therapy


Primary Prevention

Secondary Prevention

Cost-Effectiveness of Therapy

Future or Investigational Therapies

Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1]; Associate Editor(s)-in-Chief: Syed Hassan A. Kazmi BSc, MD [2]


In most cases, the prognosis of mucormycosis is poor and has varied mortality rates depending on its form and severity. In the rhinocerebral form, the mortality rate is between 30% and 70%, whereas disseminated mucormycosis presents with the highest mortality rate in an otherwise healthy patient, with a mortality rate of up to 100%. Patients with AIDS have a mortality rate of almost 100%. Possible complications of mucormycosis include the partial loss of neurological function, blindness and clotting of brain or lung vessels.

Natural History[1]

If left untreated, mucormycosis can be fatal. The survival rate of immunosuppressed patients with rhino sinusal mucormycosis without cerebral involvement is between 50-80%, and only 10% if the infection spreads into the brain. In uncontrolled diabetes mellitus patients with ketoacidosis, who are diagnosed with rhino-orbital mucormycosis, cerebral spread of infection should be suspected, if there is no improvement after 24 hours since the beginning of treatment. In 70% of cases mucormycosis occurs in diabetics, and the percentage increases if there is concomitant immunosupression and comorbities.




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  2. Dhooria S, Agarwal R, Chakrabarti A (2015). "Mediastinitis and Bronchial Perforations Due to Mucormycosis". J Bronchology Interv Pulmonol. 22 (4): 338–42. doi:10.1097/LBR.0000000000000170. PMID 26348693.
  3. Parfrey NA (1986). "Improved diagnosis and prognosis of mucormycosis. A clinicopathologic study of 33 cases". Medicine (Baltimore). 65 (2): 113–23. PMID 3951358.
  4. Marr KA, Carter RA, Crippa F, Wald A, Corey L (2002). "Epidemiology and outcome of mould infections in hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients". Clin. Infect. Dis. 34 (7): 909–17. doi:10.1086/339202. PMID 11880955.
  5. Spellberg B, Edwards J, Ibrahim A (2005). "Novel perspectives on mucormycosis: pathophysiology, presentation, and management". Clin. Microbiol. Rev. 18 (3): 556–69. doi:10.1128/CMR.18.3.556-569.2005. PMC 1195964. PMID 16020690.

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