Menopause history and symptoms

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Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1] Rahmah Al-Edresi, M.D.[2]


The hallmark of menopause is amenorrhea. The most common symptoms of menopause include hot flashes, night sweats, headach, palpitations, dyspareunia, stress incontinence, urgency, frequency, dysuria, anxiety, sleep disturbance, depression. Less common symptoms of menopause include loss of concentration, and loss of self confidence.


Obtaining a patient's history is an important aspect of making the diagnosis of menopause. It provides an insight into precipitating factors and associated comorbid conditions. A complete history will help determine the correct therapy and helps in determining the prognosis. Specific histories about the symptoms (duration, onset, progression), associated symptoms. Specific areas of focus when obtaining the history, are outlined below:

Symptoms of Menopause

The menopausal symptom happens in the menopausal transition period. The most common symptom is the increasingly erratic menstrual period together with these symptoms the woman may also have.[1][2]

Vasomotor symptoms:[3]

Urogenital symptoms:

Vaginal symptoms[4]

Urinary symptoms[5]

Sexual dysfunction symptom[6]

Skeletal symptoms:

Skin, soft tissue symptoms:

Psychological symptoms:[8]

A cohort study found that menopause was associated with hot flushes, joint pain, muscle pain, and depressed mood. Menopause was not associated with poor sleep, decreased libido, and vaginal dryness, and happens of these symptoms in the late menopausal transition years.


  1. Freeman EW, Sammel MD, Lin H, Gracia CR, Pien GW, Nelson DB; et al. (2007). "Symptoms associated with menopausal transition and reproductive hormones in midlife women". Obstet Gynecol. 110 (2 Pt 1): 230–40. doi:10.1097/01.AOG.0000270153.59102.40. PMID 17666595.
  2. Monteleone P, Mascagni G, Giannini A, Genazzani AR, Simoncini T (2018). "Symptoms of menopause - global prevalence, physiology and implications". Nat Rev Endocrinol. 14 (4): 199–215. doi:10.1038/nrendo.2017.180. PMID 29393299.
  3. Crandall CJ, Zheng Y, Crawford SL, Thurston RC, Gold EB, Johnston JM; et al. (2009). "Presence of vasomotor symptoms is associated with lower bone mineral density: a longitudinal analysis". Menopause. 16 (2): 239–46. doi:10.1097/gme.0b013e3181857964. PMC 2695505. PMID 19002017.
  4. Cagnacci A, Xholli A, Sclauzero M, Venier M, Palma F, Gambacciani M; et al. (2019). "Vaginal atrophy across the menopausal age: results from the ANGEL study". Climacteric. 22 (1): 85–89. doi:10.1080/13697137.2018.1529748. PMID 30601037.
  5. Calleja-Agius J, Brincat MP (2015). "The urogenital system and the menopause". Climacteric. 18 Suppl 1: 18–22. doi:10.3109/13697137.2015.1078206. PMID 26366796.
  6. Thornton K, Chervenak J, Neal-Perry G (2015). "Menopause and Sexuality". Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am. 44 (3): 649–61. doi:10.1016/j.ecl.2015.05.009. PMC 5994393. PMID 26316248.
  7. Watts NB (2018). "Postmenopausal Osteoporosis: A Clinical Review". J Womens Health (Larchmt). 27 (9): 1093–1096. doi:10.1089/jwh.2017.6706. PMID 29583083.
  8. Oppermann K, Fuchs SC, Donato G, Bastos CA, Spritzer PM (2012). "Physical, psychological, and menopause-related symptoms and minor psychiatric disorders in a community-based sample of Brazilian premenopausal, perimenopausal, and postmenopausal women". Menopause. 19 (3): 355–60. doi:10.1097/gme.0b013e31822ba026. PMID 21971211.

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