Menopause risk factors

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Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1] Rahmah Al-Edresi, M.D.[2]


There are several risk factors that accelerate menopause onset. Common risk factors include women's age, age at menarche, age at first gestation, number of pregnancies, oral contraceptives, irregular menses, unilateral oophorectomy, body mass index, smoking, tobacco, and alcohol, high physical activity, high serum lead level, high intake of fat.

Common Risk Factors

There are several risk factors affecting the age of menopause onset include:[1]


  1. Ceylan B, Özerdoğan N (2015). "Factors affecting age of onset of menopause and determination of quality of life in menopause". Turk J Obstet Gynecol. 12 (1): 43–49. doi:10.4274/tjod.79836. PMC 5558404. PMID 28913040.
  2. Forman MR, Mangini LD, Thelus-Jean R, Hayward MD (2013). "Life-course origins of the ages at menarche and menopause". Adolesc Health Med Ther. 4: 1–21. doi:10.2147/AHMT.S15946. PMC 3912848. PMID 24600293.
  3. de Vries E, den Tonkelaar I, van Noord PA, van der Schouw YT, te Velde ER, Peeters PH (2001). "Oral contraceptive use in relation to age at menopause in the DOM cohort". Hum Reprod. 16 (8): 1657–62. doi:10.1093/humrep/16.8.1657. PMID 11473959.
  4. Bae J, Park S, Kwon JW (2018). "Factors associated with menstrual cycle irregularity and menopause". BMC Womens Health. 18 (1): 36. doi:10.1186/s12905-018-0528-x. PMC 5801702. PMID 29409520.
  5. Bjelland EK, Wilkosz P, Tanbo TG, Eskild A (2014). "Is unilateral oophorectomy associated with age at menopause? A population study (the HUNT2 Survey)". Hum Reprod. 29 (4): 835–41. doi:10.1093/humrep/deu026. PMID 24549218.
  6. Zhu D, Chung HF, Pandeya N, Dobson AJ, Kuh D, Crawford SL; et al. (2018). "Body mass index and age at natural menopause: an international pooled analysis of 11 prospective studies". Eur J Epidemiol. 33 (8): 699–710. doi:10.1007/s10654-018-0367-y. PMID 29460096.
  7. Mikkelsen TF, Graff-Iversen S, Sundby J, Bjertness E (2007). "Early menopause, association with tobacco smoking, coffee consumption and other lifestyle factors: a cross-sectional study". BMC Public Health. 7: 149. doi:10.1186/1471-2458-7-149. PMC 1937001. PMID 17617919.
  8. Taneri PE, Kiefte-de Jong JC, Bramer WM, Daan NM, Franco OH, Muka T (2016). "Association of alcohol consumption with the onset of natural menopause: a systematic review and meta-analysis". Hum Reprod Update. 22 (4): 516–28. doi:10.1093/humupd/dmw013. PMID 27278232.
  9. Gudmundsdottir SL, Flanders WD, Augestad LB (2013). "Physical activity and age at menopause: the Nord-Trøndelag population-based health study". Climacteric. 16 (1): 78–87. doi:10.3109/13697137.2011.646344. PMID 22339441.
  10. Nagata C, Wada K, Nakamura K, Tamai Y, Tsuji M, Shimizu H (2012). "Associations of physical activity and diet with the onset of menopause in Japanese women". Menopause. 19 (1): 75–81. doi:10.1097/gme.0b013e3182243737. PMID 21926924.
  11. Eum KD, Weisskopf MG, Nie LH, Hu H, Korrick SA (2014). "Cumulative lead exposure and age at menopause in the Nurses' Health Study cohort". Environ Health Perspect. 122 (3): 229–34. doi:10.1289/ehp.1206399. PMC 3948024. PMID 24398113.

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