Menopause pathophysiology

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Menopause Microchapters


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Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1] Rahmah Al-Edresi, M.D.[2]


Menopause is natural amenorrhea that is happened without any pathological causes, but premature menopause/early menopause is caused by pathological diseases in ovaries and other organs such as premature ovarian failure (Primary ovarian insufficiency, POI), Adrenal insufficiency, type1 diabetes mellitus, autoimmune thyroid disease, Fanconi’s anemia, and Congenital adrenal hyperplasia. Cardiovascular disease and osteoporosis are most important conditions associated with menopause. Women who had genetic disorders ( Fragile X syndrome, Turner’s syndrome) more prone able to early menopause. The histopathological analysis include ovaries's cortex becomes thinner and it has fewer follicles and the medulla develops fibrosis and scars. Decrease of ciliated cells of Fallopian tubes and Uterus. And atrophy of vaginal mucosal layer .


Physiological menopause

Premature menopause

Premature menopause/early menopause is caused by several pathological diseases include:


There are genetic disorders involved in the premature menopause/early menopause include:

Associated Conditions

The most important Conditions associated with Menopause include:

Microscopic Pathology

On microscopic histopathological analysis of menopause include:


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  7. Zerbinati N, Serati M, Origoni M, Candiani M, Iannitti T, Salvatore S; et al. (2015). "Microscopic and ultrastructural modifications of postmenopausal atrophic vaginal mucosa after fractional carbon dioxide laser treatment". Lasers Med Sci. 30 (1): 429–36. doi:10.1007/s10103-014-1677-2. PMID 25410301.
  8. Makabe S, Motta PM, Naguro T, Vizza E, Perrone G, Zichella L (1998). "Microanatomy of the female reproductive organs in postmenopause by scanning electron microscopy". Climacteric. 1 (1): 63–71. doi:10.3109/13697139809080683. PMID 11907929.

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