Pacemaker syndrome history and symptoms

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Pacemaker syndrome Microchapters



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Differentiating Pacemaker syndrome from other Diseases

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Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1]; Associate Editor(s)-in-Chief: Raviteja Guddeti, M.B.B.S. [2]

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No criteria have been developed to aid the diagnosis of pacemaker syndrome. Most of the signs and symptoms of pacemaker syndrome are nonspecific, and many are prevalent in the elderly male population.[1][2]

Common symptoms documented in patients' history, include:[3][1][4][5][6]


  1. 1.0 1.1 Nishimura RA, Gersh BJ, Vlietstra RE, Osborn MJ, Ilstrup DM, Holmes DR (1982). "Hemodynamic and symptomatic consequences of ventricular pacing". Pacing Clin Electrophysiol. 5 (6): 903–10. PMID 6184693. Unknown parameter |month= ignored (help)
  2. Santini M, Alexidou G, Ansalone G, Cacciatore G, Cini R, Turitto G (1990). "Relation of prognosis in sick sinus syndrome to age, conduction defects and modes of permanent cardiac pacing". Am. J. Cardiol. 65 (11): 729–35. doi:10.1016/0002-9149(90)91379-K. PMID 2316455. Unknown parameter |month= ignored (help)[dead link]
  3. Chalvidan T, Deharo JC, Djiane P (2000). "[Pacemaker syndromes]". Ann Cardiol Angeiol (Paris) (in French). 49 (4): 224–9. PMID 12555483. Unknown parameter |month= ignored (help)
  4. Petersen HH, Videbaek J (1992). "[The pacemaker syndrome]". Ugeskr. Laeg. (in Danish). 154 (38): 2547–51. PMID 1413181. Unknown parameter |month= ignored (help)
  5. Alicandri C, Fouad FM, Tarazi RC, Castle L, Morant V (1978). "Three cases of hypotension and syncope with ventricular pacing: possible role of atrial reflexes". Am. J. Cardiol. 42 (1): 137–42. doi:10.1016/0002-9149(78)90998-0. PMID 677029. Unknown parameter |month= ignored (help)
  6. Ausubel K, Boal BH, Furman S (1985). "Pacemaker syndrome: definition and evaluation". Cardiol Clin. 3 (4): 587–94. PMID 3910239.

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