Pacemaker syndrome other diagnostic studies

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Pacemaker syndrome Microchapters



Historical Perspective


Differentiating Pacemaker syndrome from other Diseases

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Risk Factors

Natural History, Complications and Prognosis


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Other Imaging Findings

Other Diagnostic Studies


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Case #1

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Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1]; Associate Editor(s)-in-Chief: Raviteja Guddeti, M.B.B.S. [2]

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Pacemaker Interrogation

Diagnosis of pacemaker syndrome should start with pacemaker interrogation. It includes:

  • Ruling out excessive ventricular pacing
  • Looking for AV dissociation/VA conduction
  • Looking for pacemaker malfunctioning, battery life and mode reversal

Other methods to diagnose Pacemaker Syndrome includes:

  • Measuring systolic time intervals
  • Measuring finger pulse amplitude by strain gauge
  • Correlating cardiac index with pulse pressure
  • Cuff blood pressure responses to different modes of pacing

Holter Monitoring

  • Holter monitoring can be used to correlate patients' symptoms with their cardiac rhythm and is considered the best method of diagnosing pacemaker syndrome.

Blood Pressure Monitoring

  • Systolic blood pressure should be measured during ventricular pacing and should be compared with that during atrial or AV synchronous pacing.
  • A drop of 20 mm Hg or more suggests pacemaker syndrome.


Template:WikiDoc Sources [1]

  1. Ausubel K, Boal BH, Furman S (1985). "Pacemaker syndrome: definition and evaluation". Cardiol Clin. 3 (4): 587–94. PMID 3910239.