Pacemaker syndrome historical perspective

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Pacemaker syndrome Microchapters



Historical Perspective


Differentiating Pacemaker syndrome from other Diseases

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Natural History, Complications and Prognosis


History and Symptoms

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Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1]; Associate Editor(s)-in-Chief: Mahshid Mir, M.D. [2] Raviteja Guddeti, M.B.B.S. [3] Mohammed Salih, MD. [4] Tayebah Chaudhry[5]


Since the implantation of artificial pacemaker in 1958, cases of decreased cardiac output due to ventricular pacing have been reported. The majority of the patients had increased total peripheral resistance due to aortic and carotid reflexes activity resulting from the reduced cardiac output.

Historical Perspective

  • Pacemaker syndrome was first described in 1969 by Mitsui et al. as a collection of symptoms associated with right ventricular pacing.[1][2]
  • The name pacemaker syndrome was first coined by Erbel in 1979.[1][3]
  • Since its first discovery, there have been many definitions of pacemaker syndrome but the understanding of the cause of pacemaker syndrome still under investigation.
  • In a general sense, pacemaker syndrome can be defined as the symptoms associated with right ventricular pacing relieved with the return of A-V and V-V synchrony.
  • In 1994 Furman redefined pacemaker syndrome to include loss of AV synchrony, retrograde ventriculoatrial conduction, and absence of rate response to the general physiologic requirement.


  1. 1.0 1.1 Travill CM, Sutton R (1992). "Pacemaker syndrome: an iatrogenic condition". British Heart Journal. 68 (2): 163–6. doi:10.1136/hrt.68.8.163. PMC 1025005. PMID 1389730. Retrieved 2009-06-19. Unknown parameter |month= ignored (help)
  2. Mitsui T, Hori M, Suma K, et al. The "pacemaking syndrome." In: Jacobs JE, ed. Proceedings of the 8th Annual International Conference on Medical and Biological Engineering. Chicago, IL: Association for the Advancement of Medical Instrumentation;. 1969;29-3.
  3. 2 Erbel R. Pacemaker syndrome. AmJ Cardiol 1979;44:771-2.

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