Cystitis history and symptoms

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Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1] Steven C. Campbell, M.D., Ph.D. Associate Editor(s)-in-Chief: Maliha Shakil, M.D. [2], Usama Talib, BSc, MD [3]


A detailed and thorough medical history from the patient is necessary. Specific areas of focus when obtaining a history from the patient include use of urinary catheters, pregnancy, sexual history, diabetes, recent antibiotic use, history of renal disease, urinary incontinence, and urinary retention. Symptoms of cystitis include painful urination, abnormal urine color (cloudy), blood in the urine, frequent urination or urgent need to urinate, or pressure in the lower pelvis.


A detailed and thorough medical history from the patient is necessary. Specific areas of focus when obtaining a history from the patient include:[1][2][3][4][5][6]


The symptoms of cystitis may include:[7][8][9][10][11][12][13][14]

Common Symptoms in Infants

  • Decreased feeding
  • Excessive crying
  • Fussiness
  • Insomnia

Urinary symptoms



  • Pressure in the lower pelvis or back

Sexual Symptoms


  1. Schito GC, Naber KG, Botto H, Palou J, Mazzei T, Gualco L; et al. (2009). "The ARESC study: an international survey on the antimicrobial resistance of pathogens involved in uncomplicated urinary tract infections". Int J Antimicrob Agents. 34 (5): 407–13. doi:10.1016/j.ijantimicag.2009.04.012. PMID 19505803.
  2. Davis KF, Colebaugh AM, Eithun BL, Klieger SB, Meredith DJ, Plachter N; et al. (2014). "Reducing catheter-associated urinary tract infections: a quality-improvement initiative". Pediatrics. 134 (3): e857–64. doi:10.1542/peds.2013-3470. PMID 25113293.
  3. Hooton TM, Scholes D, Stapleton AE, Roberts PL, Winter C, Gupta K; et al. (2000). "A prospective study of asymptomatic bacteriuria in sexually active young women". N Engl J Med. 343 (14): 992–7. doi:10.1056/NEJM200010053431402. PMID 11018165.
  4. Teles F, Santos LG, Tenório CE, Marinho MR, Moraes SR, Câmara DB; et al. (2016). "Lupus cystitis presenting with hidronephrosis and gastrointestinal involvement". J Bras Nefrol. 38 (4): 478–482. doi:10.5935/0101-2800.20160077. PMID 28001179.
  5. Platt R, Polk BF, Murdock B, Rosner B (1986). "Risk factors for nosocomial urinary tract infection". Am J Epidemiol. 124 (6): 977–85. PMID 3776980.
  6. Ronald A (2002). "The etiology of urinary tract infection: traditional and emerging pathogens". Am J Med. 113 Suppl 1A: 14S–19S. PMID 12113867.
  7. Cystitis-acute. MedlinePlus. Accessed on February 9, 2016
  8. Stephen Bent, Brahmajee K. Nallamothu, David L. Simel, Stephan D. Fihn & Sanjay Saint (2002). "Does this woman have an acute uncomplicated urinary tract infection?". JAMA. 287 (20): 2701–2710. PMID 12020306. Unknown parameter |month= ignored (help)
  9. W. E. Stamm (1981). "Etiology and management of the acute urethral syndrome". Sexually transmitted diseases. 8 (3): 235–238. PMID 7292216. Unknown parameter |month= ignored (help)
  10. W. E. Stamm, K. F. Wagner, R. Amsel, E. R. Alexander, M. Turck, G. W. Counts & K. K. Holmes (1980). "Causes of the acute urethral syndrome in women". The New England journal of medicine. 303 (8): 409–415. doi:10.1056/NEJM198008213030801. PMID 6993946. Unknown parameter |month= ignored (help)
  11. Leonie G. M. Giesen, Grainne Cousins, Borislav D. Dimitrov, Floris A. van de Laar & Tom Fahey (2010). "Predicting acute uncomplicated urinary tract infection in women: a systematic review of the diagnostic accuracy of symptoms and signs". BMC family practice. 11: 78. doi:10.1186/1471-2296-11-78. PMID 20969801.
  12. Shaikh N, Morone NE, Lopez J, Chianese J, Sangvai S, D'Amico F; et al. (2007). "Does this child have a urinary tract infection?". JAMA. 298 (24): 2895–904. doi:10.1001/jama.298.24.2895. PMID 18159059.
  13. Kilic O, Akand M, Gul M, Karabagli P, Goktas S (2016). "Eosinophilic Cystitis: A Rare Cause of Nocturnal Enuresis in Children". Iran Red Crescent Med J. 18 (6): e24562. doi:10.5812/ircmj.24562. PMC 5002967. PMID 27621918.
  14. Bent S, Nallamothu BK, Simel DL, Fihn SD, Saint S (2002). "Does this woman have an acute uncomplicated urinary tract infection?". JAMA. 287 (20): 2701–10. PMID 12020306. Review in: Evid Based Nurs. 2002 Oct;5(4):119

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