Cystitis natural history, complications and prognosis
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Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D.  Associate Editor(s)-in-Chief: Maliha Shakil, M.D. , Usama Talib, BSc, MD 
Approximately 50% of patients with acute uncomplicated cystitis will recover without treatment within a few days or weeks. If left untreated, some patients with cystitis may progress to develop recurrent infection, pyelonephritis, hematuria, and rarely renal failure. Prognosis is generally good. The majority of patients with cystitis do not have recurrence or complications after treatment.
- Approximately 50% of patients with acute uncomplicated cystitis will recover without treatment within a few days or weeks.
- If left untreated, some patients with cystitis may progress to develop recurrent infection, pyelonephritis, hematuria, and rarely renal failure.
Complications of cystitis include:
- Chronic or recurrent urinary tract infections
- Acute renal failure
- Adhesions in the urinary bladder
- Bladder rupture
- Adenocarcinoma of the bladder
- Prognosis is generally good.
- The majority of patients with cystitis have a complete resolution of symptoms after treatment.
- Recurrence is the most common complication of cystitis.
- Every UTI increases the risk of subsequent UTI.
- An E.Coli increases the chance or recurrent infection at least three times.
- Following the first UTI, 27% of women during the first 6 months and 48% of women during the first 12 months are considered to undergo another urinary tract infection.
- ↑ 1.0 1.1 Ząbkowski T, Jurkiewicz B, Saracyn M (2015). "Treatment of Recurrent Bacterial Cystitis by Intravesical Instillations of Hyaluronic Acid". Urol J. 12 (3): 2192–5. PMID 26135937.
- ↑ 2.0 2.1 Hannan TJ, Roberts PL, Riehl TE, van der Post S, Binkley JM, Schwartz DJ; et al. (2014). "Inhibition of Cyclooxygenase-2 Prevents Chronic and Recurrent Cystitis". EBioMedicine. 1 (1): 46–57. doi:10.1016/j.ebiom.2014.10.011. PMC 4457352. PMID 26125048.
- ↑ IMMERGUT S, COTTLER ZR (1950). "Mucin producing adenocarcinoma of the bladder associated with cystitis follicularis and glandularis". Urol Cutaneous Rev. 54 (9): 531–4. PMID 15443228.
- ↑ Tanaka T, Yamashita S, Mitsuzuka K, Yamada S, Kaiho Y, Nakagawa H; et al. (2013). "Encrusted cystitis causing postrenal failure". J Infect Chemother. 19 (6): 1193–5. doi:10.1007/s10156-013-0603-z. PMID 23605319.
- ↑ Freyer PJ (1907). "TOTAL ENUCLEATION OF THE PROSTATE FOR RADICAL CURE OF ENLARGEMENT OF THAT ORGAN: A FURTHER SERIES OF 119 CASES OF THE OPERATION". Br Med J. 1 (2410): 551–5. PMC 2356894. PMID 20763110.
- ↑ Shimi A, Boumedian A, Elbakouri N, Derkaoui A, Khatouf M (2015). "[A rare cause of septic shock in diabetic: emphysematous cystitis complicated with bladder rupture]". Pan Afr Med J. 20: 415. doi:10.11604/pamj.2015.20.415.6757. PMC 4524907. PMID 26301019.
- ↑ Kuriyama A, Nakajo K (2014). "Emphysematous cystitis and bacteremia caused by Escherichia coli". Intern Med. 53 (4): 349. PMID 24531100.
- ↑ Kauffman CA, Vazquez JA, Sobel JD, Gallis HA, McKinsey DS, Karchmer AW; et al. (2000). "Prospective multicenter surveillance study of funguria in hospitalized patients. The National Institute for Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) Mycoses Study Group". Clin Infect Dis. 30 (1): 14–8. doi:10.1086/313583. PMID 10619726.
- ↑ Urinary Tract Infections in Adults. NIDDK 2016. http://www.niddk.nih.gov/health-information/health-topics/urologic-disease/urinary-tract-infections-in-adults/Pages/facts.aspx. Accessed on February 9, 2016
- ↑ Foxman B, Gillespie B, Koopman J, Zhang L, Palin K, Tallman P; et al. (2000). "Risk factors for second urinary tract infection among college women". Am J Epidemiol. 151 (12): 1194–205. PMID 10905532.
- ↑ Salvatore S, Salvatore S, Cattoni E, Siesto G, Serati M, Sorice P; et al. (2011). "Urinary tract infections in women". Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 156 (2): 131–6. doi:10.1016/j.ejogrb.2011.01.028. PMID 21349630.