Cystitis risk factors

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Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1] Steven C. Campbell, M.D., Ph.D. Associate Editor(s)-in-Chief: Maliha Shakil, M.D. [2], Usama Talib, BSc, MD [3]


Common risk factors in the development of cystitis include female gender, sexual intercourse, diabetes, pregnancy, catheterization, fecal incontinence, old age, and immobility. Some foods are thought to have a role in increasing the risk of cystitis such as vitamin C, coffee or tea, carbonated and alcoholic drinks, citrus fruit, or spicy foods.

Risk Factors

Common risk factors in the development of cystitis include:[1][2][3][4][5][6][7][8][9][10]

General Risk Factors


Medications and Procedures

Foods Increasing Risk of Cystitis

The following foods are thought to have a role in increasing the risk of cystitis:[11]

  • Spicy foods
  • Citrus fruit
  • Carbonated and alcoholic drinks
  • Coffee or tea
  • Vitamin C


  1. Platt R, Polk BF, Murdock B, Rosner B (1986). "Risk factors for nosocomial urinary tract infection". Am J Epidemiol. 124 (6): 977–85. PMID 3776980.
  2. Cystitis-acute. MedlinePlus. Accessed on February 9, 2016
  3. Hooton TM (2000). "Pathogenesis of urinary tract infections: an update". J Antimicrob Chemother. 46 Suppl A: 1–7. PMID 10969044.
  4. Nicolle LE (2008). "Uncomplicated urinary tract infection in adults including uncomplicated pyelonephritis". Urol Clin North Am. 35 (1): 1–12, v. doi:10.1016/j.ucl.2007.09.004. PMID 18061019.
  5. Zhong YH, Fang Y, Zhou JZ, Tang Y, Gong SM, Ding XQ (2011). "Effectiveness and safety of patient initiated single-dose versus continuous low-dose antibiotic prophylaxis for recurrent urinary tract infections in postmenopausal women: a randomized controlled study". J Int Med Res. 39 (6): 2335–43. PMID 22289552.
  6. Nicolle LE (2001). "A practical guide to antimicrobial management of complicated urinary tract infection". Drugs Aging. 18 (4): 243–54. PMID 11341472.
  7. Franco AV (2005). "Recurrent urinary tract infections". Best Pract Res Clin Obstet Gynaecol. 19 (6): 861–73. doi:10.1016/j.bpobgyn.2005.08.003. PMID 16298166.
  8. Scholes D, Hawn TR, Roberts PL, Li SS, Stapleton AE, Zhao LP; et al. (2010). "Family history and risk of recurrent cystitis and pyelonephritis in women". J Urol. 184 (2): 564–9. doi:10.1016/j.juro.2010.03.139. PMC 3665335. PMID 20639019.
  9. Ples R, Méchaï F, Champiat B, Droupy S, Huerre M, Guettier C; et al. (2011). "[Pseudotumoral toxoplasmic cystitis revealing acquired immunodeficiency syndrome]". Ann Pathol. 31 (1): 46–9. doi:10.1016/j.annpat.2010.11.001. PMID 21349389.
  10. Teles F, Santos LG, Tenório CE, Marinho MR, Moraes SR, Câmara DB; et al. (2016). "Lupus cystitis presenting with hidronephrosis and gastrointestinal involvement". J Bras Nefrol. 38 (4): 478–482. doi:10.5935/0101-2800.20160077. PMID 28001179.
  11. Friedlander JI, Shorter B, Moldwin RM (2012). "Diet and its role in interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome (IC/BPS) and comorbid conditions". BJU Int. 109 (11): 1584–91. doi:10.1111/j.1464-410X.2011.10860.x. PMID 22233286.

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