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Nocturia (derived from Latin nox, night, and Greek [τα] ούρα, urine), also called nycturia (Greek νυκτουρία), is the need to get up during the night in order to urinate, thus interrupting sleep. Its occurrence is more frequent in the elderly. Nocturia could result simply from too much liquid intake before going to bed, or it could be a symptom of a larger problem, such as chronic renal failure, urinary incontinence, Interstitial Cystitis, diabetes, benign prostatic hyperplasia, Ureteropelvic junction obstruction or prostate cancer.
- Nocturia was defined by International Continence Society (ICS) in 2002, as the need to wake up one or more times at nights to void. 
- Clinical definition of nocturia is awaking from sleep to urinate two or more that two times per night.  
The association between [important risk factor/cause] and [disease name] was made in/during [year/event].
In [year], [scientist] was the first to discover the association between [risk factor] and the development of [disease name].
In [year], [gene] mutations were first implicated in the pathogenesis of [disease name].
There have been several outbreaks of [disease name], including -----.
In [year], [diagnostic test/therapy] was developed by [scientist] to treat/diagnose [disease name].
- It is thought that nocturia is caused by a number of factors, including 
- urological disorders
- urine overproduction due to
- depletion of third-space fluid in overload states following a recumbent position during sleep
- overproduction of atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) caused by
- deficiency or dysfunction of antidiuretic hormone (ADH) or arginine vasopressin (AVP)
- medications such as diuretics
- behavioral factors such as high water intake at night
- AVP regulates urine production by antidiuretic effects in the collecting system in the kidneys, resulted in
- increasing water reabsorption
- decreasing urine volume
- AVP deficiency or AVP dysfunction leads to decreasing urine concentration, increasing urine volume and nocturia. 
Causes by Pathogenesis
|Causes of Nocturia|
|Due to Hormonal imbalance||Due to Vesical problems|
|Global Polyuria||Nocturanl Polyuria||Sleep disorders||Bladder storage disorders|
Causes Due to Hormonal Imbalance
|Global Polyuria||Nocturnal Polyuria||Sleep disorders|
Defined as a 24-hour urine volume that exceeds 3 liters per day (or 40 mL per kg). The common causes of global polyuria are
Nocturnal polyuria is defined as an increase in urine production during the night but with a proportional decrease in daytime urine production that results in a normal 24-hour urine volume. Nocturnal polyuria may be due to age-related changes in the secretion and action of arginine vasopressin (AVP). There is a diurnal periodicity in AVP release in young, healthy subjects, with higher AVP plasma levels in the evening contributing to decreased nighttime urine output. The diurnal variation in AVP release is absent in many older people. Compared with the normal patients, nocturia patients have a nocturnal decrease in AVP level. Other causes of nocturnal polyuria include diseases such as
Sleep disorders have been demonstrated to be a frequent cause of nocturia in men younger than 50 years and in women with symptoms of daytime overactive bladder syndrome. Primary sleep disorders may result in nocturia either because of hormonal changes related to sleep-disordered breathing or due to patient misperception of the reason for awakening due to the sleep disturbance but recall this as an awakening to void. e.g.
Causes Due to Vesical Problems
|Bladder storage disorder|
Reduced bladder capacity or impaired bladder function results in low-volume voids. Most common causes of low-volume bladder voids are
Causes by Organ System
|Chemical/Poisoning||No underlying causes|
|Dental||No underlying causes|
|Dermatologic||No underlying causes|
|Drug Side Effect||Bicalutamide, Cardiac glycosides, Demeclocycline, Diuretics, Excessive vitamin D intake, Lithium, Methoxyflurane, Phenytoin, Propoxyphene, Tiagabine|
|Ear Nose Throat||No underlying causes|
|Environmental||No underlying causes|
|Gastroenterologic||No underlying causes|
|Genetic||No underlying causes|
|Hematologic||No underlying causes|
|Iatrogenic||No underlying causes|
|Infectious Disease||Interstitial cystitis, Recurrent UTI|
|Musculoskeletal/Orthopedic||No underlying causes|
|Neurologic||Detrusor hyperactivity, Diabetes insipidus, Neurogenic bladder , Parkinson disease, Restless leg syndrome, Urge incontinence|
|Obstetric/Gynecologic||No underlying causes|
|Ophthalmologic||No underlying causes|
|Overdose/Toxicity||No underlying causes|
|Psychiatric||Anxiety disorders, Depression, Obstructive sleep apnea, Primary polydipsia|
|Pulmonary||No underlying causes|
|Renal/Electrolyte||Chronic renal failure, Diabetes insipidus, Nephrotic syndrome|
|Rheumatology/Immunology/Allergy||No underlying causes|
|Sexual||No underlying causes|
|Trauma||No underlying causes|
|Urologic||Benign prostatic hyperplasia, Bladder outlet obstruction, Detrusor hyperactivity, Granulomatous prostatitis, Interstitial cystitis, Neurogenic bladder, Prostate cancer, Ureteropelvic junction obstruction|
|Miscellaneous||Learned voiding dysfunction, Venous insufficiency|
Causes in Alphabetical Order
- Anxiety disorders
- Benign prostatic hyperplasia
- Bladder outlet obstruction
- Cardiac glycosides
- Chronic renal failure
- Detrusor hyperactivity
- Diabetes insipidus
- Excessive vitamin D intake
- Granulomatous prostatitis
- Heart failure
- Interstitial cystitis
- Learned voiding dysfunction
- Liver failure
- Nephrotic syndrome
- Neurogenic bladder
- Obstructive sleep apnea
- Parkinson disease
- Primary hyperaldosteronism
- Primary polydipsia
- Prostate cancer
- Recurrent UTI
- Restless leg syndrome
- Ureteropelvic junction obstruction
- Urge incontinence
- Venous insufficiency
Differentiating ((Page name)) from other Diseases
[Disease name] must be differentiated from other diseases that cause [clinical feature 1], [clinical feature 2], and [clinical feature 3], such as [differential dx1], [differential dx2], and [differential dx3].
[Disease name] must be differentiated from [[differential dx1], [differential dx2], and [differential dx3].
Epidemiology and Demographics
- The prevalence of nocturia ≥ 1 voids is approximately 69000 per 100,000 men aged ≥ 40 years and 76000 per 100,000 women aged ≥ 40 years in the United States, United Kingdom, and Sweden.  
- The prevalence of nocturia ≥ 2 voids in population aged 20-30 years is approximately 4000 to 18000 per 100,000 women and 2000 to 17000 per 100,000 men. 
- The prevalence of nocturia ≥ 2 voids in population aged 70-80 years is 28000 to 62000 per 100,000 women and 29000 to 59000 per 100,000 men. 
- The prevalence of nocturia ≥ 2 voids in in Canada, Germany, Italy, Sweden, and the United Kingdom is 13000 to 17000 per 100,000 individuals aged < 40 years and 20000 to 21000 per 100,000 middle-aged populations and 35000 to 36000 per 100,000 individuals aged ≥ 60 years. 
- The incidence of nocturia increases with age. 
- Nocturia can affect younger people as 1 from 5 or 6 younger population wake up at least two times per night to void.  
- non-Hispanic black men are more likely to develop nocturia.  
- nocturia affects men and women equally. However, nocturia incidence are more in young women than young men, and also old men are more likely to develop nocturia than old women. 
- Common risk factors in the development of nocturia include 
- Potent risk factors in the development of nocturia in men include
- Potent risk factors in the development of nocturia in women include
There is insufficient evidence to recommend routine screening for nocturia.
Natural History, Complications, and Prognosis
- Common complications of nocturia include
Diagnostic Study of Choice
- The diagnosis of nocturia is based on the clinical history defined by International Continence Society (ICS) in 2002, which includes wake up at night ≥1 times to void. 
- According to new revised definition in 2017 , nocturia is to wake up to void during the sleep period. 
- Bladder diary should be asked from the patients, including 
- the amount of water intake
- the time of water intake
- time and volume of urination
- the number of urinations during the day
- the number of nocturia (urination during the sleep),
- the number of urinations and the amount of urine production during the day
- Frequency- volume charts can be diagnostic for nocturia. 
History and Symptoms
- The most common symptoms of nocturia include passing urine, urgency and frequency at nights. 
- History of fluid, alcohol and caffeine intake, urinary symptoms, medications , sleep disorders should be asked from the patients. 
- physical examination should include 
- Checking Blood pressure
- digital rectal examination of the prostate in men and pelvic examination in women
- checking edema of the lower limbs
- checking genitalia diseases (phimosis, meatal stenosis or cancer)
- abdominal examination especially bladder to assess urinary retention
- calculating BMI and/or waist circumference
- filling the chart of Frequency-volume for at least 3 days
- Laboratory tests that should be helpful for the diagnosis of nocturia include 
There are no ECG findings associated with nocturia.
There are no x-ray findings associated with nocturia.
- ultrasound may be helpful in the diagnosis of nocturia associated conditions. Ultrasound can measure postvoid residual volume and bladder wall thickness. 
- There are no CT scan findings associated with nocturia. However, a CT scan may be helpful in the diagnosis of bladder, prostate and urinary tracts abnormalities.
There are no MRI findings associated with nocturia.
Other Imaging Findings
There are no other imaging findings associated with [disease name].
[Imaging modality] may be helpful in the diagnosis of [disease name]. Findings on an [imaging modality] suggestive of/diagnostic of [disease name] include [finding 1], [finding 2], and [finding 3].
Other Diagnostic Studies
- Treatment options for nocturia depend on the underlying causes.
- Behavioral modification includes  
- Pharmacologic medical therapies for nocturia include
- desmopressin (arginine vasopressin) 
- phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors
- Botulinum toxin
Surgical intervention is not recommended for the management of [disease name].
Surgery is not the first-line treatment option for patients with [disease name]. Surgery is usually reserved for patients with either [indication 1], [indication 2], and [indication 3]
The mainstay of treatment for [disease name] is medical therapy. Surgery is usually reserved for patients with either [indication 1], [indication 2], and/or [indication 3].
The feasibility of surgery depends on the stage of [malignancy] at diagnosis.
Surgery is the mainstay of treatment for [disease or malignancy].
- Effective measures for the primary prevention of nocturia include lifestyle modifications such as 
There are no established measures for the secondary prevention of nocturia.
- Ureteral Pelvic Junction Obstruction desc.
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