Chronic renal failure causes

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Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1] ; Associate Editor(s)-in-Chief: Aarti Narayan, M.B.B.S [2] Luke Rusowicz-Orazem, B.S.


Common causes of chronic renal failure include diabetic nephropathy, hypertension, and glomerulonephritis. The commonest cause of stage 5 CKD in the U.S. is diabetes and is characterized by proteinuria and bilaterally enlarged kidneys. Hypertension is the second most common cause of Stage 5 CKD in the US, and often co-exists in diabetic patients.

Causes of Chronic Kidney Disease

Common Causes

Causes by Organ System

Cardiovascular Amyloidosis, Essential hypertension, Hypertension, Hypertensive nephrosclerosis, Hypotension, Intraglomerular hypertension, Malignant hypertension, Renal artery stenosis, Renal vein thrombosis, Scleroderma, Systemic hypertension, Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura, Vasculitis, Wegener's granulomatosis
Chemical/Poisoning Bismuth, Carbon tetrachloride, Lead, Lithium, Pamidronate, Radiocontrast agents
Dental No underlying causes
Dermatologic Scleroderma
Drug Side Effect Ace inhibitors, Acetominophen, Acyclovir, Allopurinol, Aminoglycosides, Amphotericin b, Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, Anticoagulants, Aspirin, Bevacizumab, Carboplatin, Carmustine, Cefoxitin , Chloroquine, Cimetidine, Cisplatin, Cyclosporine, Diflunisal, Erythromycin, Febuxostat, Ferumoxytol, Flucytosine, Foscarnet, Furosemide, Gadopentetate, Gentamicin, Hydroxychloroquine, Ifosfamide, Infliximab, Isoniazid, Laxatives, Lithium, Lomustine, Mesalamine, Methicillin, Mitomycin c, Nitrosourea, Nsaids, Penicillin, Pentamidine, Phenytoin, Propylthiouracil, Protease inhibitors, Quinine, Rifampicin, Saxagliptin, Sulfa-containing antibiotics, Sulfonamides, Sulindac, Tacrolimus, Thiazides, Tizanidine, Trimethoprim  , Vancomycin
Ear Nose Throat No underlying causes
Endocrine Amyloidosis, Hyperoxaluria, primary type 1, Hyperoxaluria, primary type 2, Hyperoxaluria, primary type 3, Hyperoxaluria
Environmental No underlying causes
Gastroenterologic Glycogenosis type 1b, Tubulointerstitial disease
Genetic Acute intermittent porphyria  , Adenine phosphoribosyltransferase deficiency, Alport's syndrome, Alström syndrome, Barakat syndrome, Bardet-biedl syndrome, Dent disease, Denys-drash syndrome, Fabry's disease, Finnish congenital nephrotic syndrome, Frasier syndrome, Galloway-mowat syndrome, Hereditary nephritides, Hereditary onycho-osteodysplasia, Interferons, Jeune thoracic dystrophy syndrome, Lesch-nyhan syndrome, Loken senior syndrome, Lowe syndrome, Mainzer-saldino disease, Papillorenal syndrome, Recurrent hereditary polyserositis, Sensenbrenner syndrome, Townes-brocks syndrome, X-linked hypophosphataemia, X-linked recessive nephrolithiasis type 1
Hematologic Hemolytic uremic syndrome, Hyperlipidemia, Hypovolemia, Interferons, Light chain disease, Normocytic normochromic anemia, Sickle cell disease
Iatrogenic No underlying causes
Infectious Disease Cystinosis, Dioctophyma renale, Schistosoma haematobium, Sepsis
Musculoskeletal/Orthopedic Action myoclonus
Neurologic Action myoclonus , Lesch-nyhan syndrome
Nutritional/Metabolic Acute intermittent porphyria  , Adenine phosphoribosyltransferase deficiency, Diabetes mellitus type 1, Diabetes mellitus type 2, Diabetic nephropathy, Lecithin cholesterol acyltransferase deficiency, Metabolic acidosis, Oxalosis
Obstetric/Gynecologic No underlying causes
Oncologic Hereditary onycho-osteodysplasia, Metastatic prostate cancer, Multiple myeloma, Prostate cancer, Renal cell carcinoma
Ophthalmologic Lecithin cholesterol acyltransferase deficiency, Loken senior syndrome
Overdose/Toxicity Cocaine
Psychiatric No underlying causes
Pulmonary Granulomatosis with polyangiitis
Renal/Electrolyte Alport's syndrome, Balkan endemic nephropathy, Barakat syndrome, Chronic glomerulonephritis, Chronic pyelonephritis, Congenital nephrotic syndrome, Dense deposit disease, Dent disease, Denys-drash syndrome, Diabetic nephropathy, Dioctophyma renale, Familial juvenile hyperuricemic nephropathy, Fibronectin glomerulopathy, Finnish congenital nephrotic syndrome, Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis, Glomerular hypertrophy, Glomerulocystic kidney disease, Glomerulonephritis, Glomerulosclerosis, Goodpasture’s syndrome, Granulomatosis with polyangiitis, Hereditary nephritides, Hydronephrosis, Hyperkalemia, Hyperoxaluria, primary type 1, Hyperoxaluria, primary type 2, Hyperoxaluria, primary type 3, Hyperoxaluria, Hypertensive nephrosclerosis, Hyperuricemic nephropathy, familial juvenile type 1, Hyperuricemic nephropathy, familial juvenile type 2, Idiopathic membranous nephropathy, Idiopathic multicentric osteolysis, Iga nephropathy, Interstitial nephritis, Intraglomerular hypertension, Light chain disease, Medullary cystic kidney disease, Medullary cystic renal disease, Medullary sponge kidney, Membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis, Membranous nephritis, Nephritic syndrome, Nephrolithiasis, Nephrosclerosis, Nephrotic syndrome, Normocytic normochromic anemia, Obstructive nephropathy, Obstructive uropathy, Oxalosis, Papillorenal syndrome, Polycystic kidney disease, Proteinuria, Pyelonephritis, Reflux nephropathy, Renal artery stenosis, Renal cell carcinoma, Renal tubular acidosis, Renal vein thrombosis, Systemic sclerosis, Urinary tract obstruction, Vesicoureteral reflux, Xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis
Rheumatology/Immunology/Allergy Amyloidosis, Goodpasture’s syndrome, Gout, Granulomatosis with polyangiitis, Lupus nephritis, Lupus, Rheumatoid arthritis
Sexual No underlying causes
Trauma No underlying causes
Urologic Benign prostatic hyperplasia, Dent disease, Familial juvenile hyperuricemic nephropathy, Frasier syndrome, Hemolytic uremic syndrome
Miscellaneous No underlying causes

Causes in Alphabetical Order


  1. Santamaria P, Boyce-Jacino MT, Lindstrom AL, Barbosa JJ, Faras AJ, Rich SS (February 1992). "HLA class II "typing": direct sequencing of DRB, DQB, and DQA genes". Hum. Immunol. 33 (2): 69–81. PMID 1563984.
  2. Levey AS, Coresh J, Balk E, Kausz AT, Levin A, Steffes MW; et al. (2003). "National Kidney Foundation practice guidelines for chronic kidney disease: evaluation, classification, and stratification". Ann Intern Med. 139 (2): 137–47. PMID 12859163‎ Check |pmid= value (help).
  3. Schaeffer GW, St John JB, Sharpe FT (January 1972). "Effect of 6-benzylaminopurine on ATP levels and Me- 14 C incorporation into neutral and polar lipids during the release of dormant buds of Nicotiana tabacum". Biochim. Biophys. Acta. 261 (1): 38–43. PMID 5012472.
  4. "[Comparison between the results obtained with androgen therapy and therapy with androgens and cytostatic drugs in advanced mammary carcinoma]". Tumori (in Italian). 54 (4): 333–44. 1968. PMID 5697591.
  5. Croteau R, Kolattukudy PE (July 1974). "Biosynthesis of hydroxyfatty acid polymers. Enzymatic synthesis of cutin from monomer acids by cell-free preparations from the epidermis of Vicia faba leaves". Biochemistry. 13 (15): 3193–202. PMID 4841061.

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