Cyanosis primary prevention

Jump to: navigation, search

Cyanosis Microchapters


Patient Information


Historical Perspective




Differentiating Cyanosis from other Diseases

Epidemiology and Demographics

Risk Factors


Natural History, Complications and Prognosis


Diagnostic Study of Choice

History and Symptoms

Physical Examination

Laboratory Findings


Chest X Ray



Other Imaging Findings

Other Diagnostic Studies


Medical Therapy


Primary Prevention

Secondary Prevention

Cost-Effectiveness of Therapy

Future or Investigational Therapies

Case Studies

Case #1

Cyanosis primary prevention On the Web

Most recent articles

Most cited articles

Review articles

CME Programs

Powerpoint slides


American Roentgen Ray Society Images of Cyanosis primary prevention

All Images
Echo & Ultrasound
CT Images

Ongoing Trials at Clinical

US National Guidelines Clearinghouse

NICE Guidance

FDA on Cyanosis primary prevention

CDC on Cyanosis primary prevention

Cyanosis primary prevention in the news

Blogs on Cyanosis primary prevention

Directions to Hospitals Treating Cyanosis

Risk calculators and risk factors for Cyanosis primary prevention

Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1]; Associate Editor(s)-in-Chief:


Prenatal diagnosis

  • Most congenital heart defects can be identified by fetal echocardiography.
  • Guidelines of the International Society for Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology recommends Ultra Sound assessment of the outflow tracts. [41].
  • Less than half of patients with critical congenital heart defects were routinely identified. [10,42-44].

Antenatal corticosteroid therapy

  • Antenatal corticosteroid therapy should be administered to all pregnant women at 23 to 34 weeks who are at increased risk of preterm delivery within the next seven days to prevent or decrease the severity of neonatal RDS.
  • Coericosteroids enhances maturational changes in fetal lung architecture and biochemistry with increased synthesis and release of surfactant, resulting in improved neonatal lung function.

Assisted ventilation techniques

  • Respiratory support that prevents and reduces atelectasis should be administered to all preterm infants who are at risk for RDS.
  • The less invasive modalities have replaced intubation and mechanical ventilation as the initial intervention that provides positive pressure to reduce the risk of atelectasis. Nasal continuous positive airway pressure (nCPAP) is the preferred modality to provide positive end-expiratory pressure.
  • Intubation and mechanical ventilation with PEEP may be needed in case of failed previous maneuvers.
  • Prophylactic caffeine therapy is recommended in extremely low birth weight infants (BW <1000 g) as these patients universally will have apnea of prematurity and are at greatest risk for developing BPD. 17.
  • Other indications for mechanical ventilation include:
  • Respiratory acidosis, documented by an arterial pH <7.2 and partial pressure of arterial carbon dioxide (PaCO2) >60 to 65 mmHg
  • Hypoxemia documented by an arterial partial pressure of oxygen (PaO2) <50 mmHg despite oxygen supplementation, or when the fraction of inspired concentration (FiO2) exceeds 0.40 on nCPAP
  • Severe apnea