Cyanosis diagnostic study of choice

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Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1]; Associate Editor(s)-in-Chief:

Overview

Diagnostic Study of Choice

Template statements

Study of choice:

  • Echocardiography is the gold standard test for the diagnosis of cyanotic congenital heart diseases.[1]
  • The following result of [gold standard test] is confirmatory of [disease name]:
    • Result 1
    • Result 2
  • The [name of the investigation] should be performed when:
    • The patient presented with symptoms/signs 1. 2, 3.
    • A positive [test] is detected in the patient.
  • [Name of the investigation] is the gold standard test for the diagnosis of [disease name].
  • There is no single diagnostic study of choice for the diagnosis of [disease name].
  • There is no single diagnostic study of choice for the diagnosis of [disease name], but [disease name] can be diagnosed based on [name of the investigation 1] and [name of the investigation 2].
  • [Disease name] is mainly diagnosed based on clinical presentation.
  • Investigations:
    • Among patients who present with clinical signs of [disease name], the [investigation name] is the most specific test for the diagnosis.
    • Among patients who present with clinical signs of [disease name], the [investigation name] is the most sensitive test for diagnosis.
    • Among patients who present with clinical signs of [disease name], the [investigation name] is the most efficient test for diagnosis.

The comparison table for diagnostic studies of choice for [disease name]

Sensitivity Specificity
Test 1 ...%
Test 2 ...%

✔= The best test based on the feature

Diagnostic results

The following result of deoxyhemoglobin test is confirmatory of cyanosis:[2]

  • Result 1
  • Result 2
Sequence of Diagnostic Studies

The [name of investigation] should be performed when:

  • The patient presented with symptoms/signs 1, 2, and 3 as the first step of diagnosis.
  • A positive [test] is detected in the patient, to confirm the diagnosis.

Diagnostic Criteria

  • Here you should describe the details of the diagnostic criteria.
  • Always mention the name of the criteria/definition you are about to list (e.g. modified Duke criteria for the diagnosis of endocarditis / 3rd universal definition of MI) and cite the primary source of where this criteria/definition is found.
  • Although not necessary, it is recommended that you include the criteria in a table. Make sure you always cite the source of the content and whether the table has been adapted from another source.
  • Be very clear as to the number of criteria (or threshold) that needs to be met out of the total number of criteria.
  • Distinguish criteria based on their nature (e.g. clinical criteria / pathological criteria/ imaging criteria) before discussing them in details.
  • To view an example (endocarditis diagnostic criteria), click here
  • If relevant, add additional information that might help the reader distinguish various criteria or the evolution of criteria (e.g. original criteria vs. modified criteria).
  • You may also add information about the sensitivity and specificity of the criteria, the pre-test probability, and other figures that may help the reader understand how valuable the criteria are clinically.
  • [Disease name] is mainly diagnosed based on clinical presentation. There are no established criteria for the diagnosis of [disease name].
  • There is no single diagnostic study of choice for [disease name], though [disease name] may be diagnosed based on [name of criteria] established by [...].
  • The diagnosis of [disease name] is made when at least [number] of the following [number] diagnostic criteria are met: [criterion 1], [criterion 2], [criterion 3], and [criterion 4].
  • The diagnosis of [disease name] is based on the [criteria name] criteria, which includes [criterion 1], [criterion 2], and [criterion 3].
  • [Disease name] may be diagnosed at any time if one or more of the following criteria are met:
    • Criteria 1
    • Criteria 2
    • Criteria 3

IF there are clear, established diagnostic criteria:

  • The diagnosis of [disease name] is made when at least [number] of the following [number] diagnostic criteria are met: [criterion 1], [criterion 2], [criterion 3], and [criterion 4].
  • The diagnosis of [disease name] is based on the [criteria name] criteria, which include [criterion 1], [criterion 2], and [criterion 3].
  • The diagnosis of [disease name] is based on the [definition name] definition, which includes [criterion 1], [criterion 2], and [criterion 3].

IF there are no established diagnostic criteria: 

  • There are no established criteria for the diagnosis of [disease name].


References

  1. Deeg KH (April 2015). "Echocardiographic differential diagnosis of the cyanotic newborn". Ultraschall Med. 36 (2): 104–18, quiz 119–20. doi:10.1055/s-0034-1385493. PMID 25474186.
  2. Martin L, Khalil H (January 1990). "How much reduced hemoglobin is necessary to generate central cyanosis?". Chest. 97 (1): 182–5. PMID 2403895.



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