Cyanosis historical perspective

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Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1]; Associate Editor(s)-in-Chief: Amandeep Singh M.D.[2]

Overview

Cyanosis was first described by deSenac who was physician of King Louis XV in 1749. He described as admixture of arterial and venous blood due to abnormal connection between two sides of the heart. In 1761, Morgagini showed association of cyanosis with pulmonary stenosis due to stasis of blood. Cyanosis was described by Sandifort, an European, in 1777 as a "blue boy" with tetralogy of Fallot. In 1892, Vaquez described the first case of polycythemia, as a cause of cyanosis. In 1919, Christen Lundsgaard quantified the amount of blood required to be deoxygenated to give the bluish discoloration of cyanosis. Blalock and Taussid performed the first anastomosis of subclavian to pulmonary artery on November 9, 1944 to lessen the cyanosis in tetralogy of Fallot. United States' Olympian and gold medalist Shaun White was born with tetralogy of Fallot and had cyanosis because of that.

Historical Perspective

Discovery

  • Cyanosis was first described by deSenac who was physician of King Louis XV in 1749.[1] He described as admixture of arterial and venous blood due to abnormal connection between two sides of the heart.[2][3]
  • In 1761, Morgagini showed association of cyanosis with pulmonary stenosis due to stasis of blood.[4]
  • Cyanosis was described by Sandifort, an European, in 1777 as a "blue boy" with tetralogy of Fallot.[5]
  • In 1785, William Hunter described cyanosis as "When the fit  was coming..he grew oppressed at his heart, became weak or faint, grew dark in his color, and at last almost black , fell down and seemed insensible....a very small quantity if blood (instead of the whole) passed through the lungs to receive the benefit of respiration and that with a small force too."
  • In 1892, Vaquez described the first case of polycythemia, as a cause of cyanosis.[6]
  • In 1919, Christen Lundsgaard quantified the amount of blood required to be deoxygenated to give the bluish discoloration of cyanosis.[2][7]

Landmark Events in the Development of Treatment Strategies

Famous Cases

  • United States' Olympian and gold medalist Shaun White was born with tetralogy of Fallot and had cyanosis because of that.

References

  1. de Senac, J. B., Trait6 de la structure ducoeur, desonacfionetdesesmaladies, Paris, 1749.
  2. 2.0 2.1 Lundsgaard C (September 1919). "STUDIES ON CYANOSIS : I. PRIMARY CAUSES OF CYANOSIS". J. Exp. Med. 30 (3): 259–69. PMC 2126682. PMID 19868357.
  3. McGee, Steven (2012). Evidence-based physical diagnosis. Philadelphia: Elsevier/Saunders. ISBN 978-1437722079.
  4. Morgagni, J. B., De sedibus et causis morborum per anatomen indagatis libri quinque, Venice, 1761.
  5. Chopra, H. K. (2012). Textbook of cardiology : a clinical & historical perspective. New Delhi London: Jaypee Medical. ISBN 978-9350900819.
  6. Vaquez, H., Compt. rend. Soc. biol., 1892, iv, series 9, 384.
  7. Lundsgaard C (September 1919). "STUDIES ON CYANOSIS : II. SECONDARY CAUSES OF CYANOSIS". J. Exp. Med. 30 (3): 271–93. PMC 2126678. PMID 19868358.
  8. Blalock, Alfred (1945). "THE SURGICAL TREATMENT OF MALFORMATIONS OF THE HEART". Journal of the American Medical Association. 128 (3): 189. doi:10.1001/jama.1945.02860200029009. ISSN 0002-9955.

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