Cyanosis epidemiology and demographics

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Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1]; Associate Editor(s)-in-Chief:


Epidemiology and Demographics

  • Prevalence of congenital heart diseases at birth ranges from 6 to 13 per 1000 live births. [13-19].
  • The most common congenital heart defect is a bicuspid aortic valve, with a prevalence between 0.5 and 2 percent, but as an isolated lesion it is rarely diagnosed in infancy. [21-23]
  • The next most common defects are ventricular septal defects, prevalence of 4 per 1000 live births and atrial septal defects, prevalence of 2 per 1000 live births. [11,15,24,25].
  • Tetralogy of Fallot is the most common cyanotic CHD (0.5 per 1000 live births). [15,26].
  • The incidence of respiratory distress in infants admitted to neonatal units doubled over the last 30 years in a geographically defined neonatal population. Regarding to large study, the overall incidence of respiratory distress is 6.7%.
  • Transient tachypnea of newborn was found to be the commonest (42.7%) cause of RD followed by infection (17.0%), meconium aspiration syndrome (10.7%), hyaline membrane disease (9.3%) and birth asphyxia. (3.3%)
  • A total of 98 (2.8%) out of 3,454 newborns were admitted due to episodes of cyanosis. Gestational age: 37.8+1.4 weeks, birth weight: 3,145+477 g. Maternal age: 32+4.8 years. Disease was present in 19.4% of mothers; gestational diabetes (8.1%), pregnancy induced hypertension (5.1%), intrahepatic cholestasis (3.1%), and intrauterine growth retardation (3.1%). Gender: 48.8% male, 51.2% female (NS). Birth: caesarean section, 68.4%, and vaginal delivery, 31.6%. Age on admission 1.9+1.4 days. Hospital stay: 4.2+4.2 days. First line tests were performed in 100% of patients with 39.8% fulfilling the criteria for second line study. A condition was detected in 21.4%, with convulsive syndrome was the most frequent (33%). Newborns with an identified condition had 3.8+2.7 episodes versus 1.5+2,4 in those without diagnosis (NS). A home oxygen monitor was given to 15.4%. There were no re-admissions.
  • Since its inception, the neonatal mechanical ventilator has been considered an essential tool for managing preterm neonates with RespiratoryDistress Syndrome (RDS) and is still regarded as an integral component in the neonatal respiratory care continuum. Mechanical ventilation of newborn has been practiced for several years with several advances made in the way. This clinical intervention study was done to analyze immediate outcome of preterm neonates with RDS required mechanical ventilation and conducted on preterm neonates with RDS required mechanical ventilation from July 2014 to June 2015. Total of 31 preterm neonates with RDS were mechanically ventilated during the study period, of which 77.42% (N=24) survived. The survival rate was highest among 30- <34 weeks (100%) gestational age (GA) group and lowest in 27- <30 weeks (56%) GA, (p=0.0036). The neonates with Birth Weight (BW) 1500gm -1800gm were higher rate of recovery which was 100% and gradually declined in 1000-1499gm (93.75%) and 800-999gm (33.33%) BW groups (p=0.00083). In this study most of the neonates were male (61.29%) but recovery rate was relatively better among baby girls (83.33%) than baby boys (73.68%) (p=0.53). RDS with surfactant therapy was better outcome than non surfactant group & survival of neonates who got surfactant were 93.33% & non surfactant neonates were 62.50%, (p=0.040). Majority (71.43%) of RDS with surfactant therapy recovered earlier <7 days than non surfactant therapy neonates (30.00%) and most of non surfactant neonates (70.00%) required prolonged ventilator support >7days (p=0.045). During the period of ventilation a total 17(54.84%) neonates developed different complications, of which ventilator associated pneumonia was (16.13%), sepsis (16.13%), pneumothorax (9.68%), pulmonary hemorrhage (6.45%) and intraventricular hemorrhage (6.45%) and among them 10 neonates recovered. No complications encountered in 14(45.16%) neonates, all of them survived, (p=0.0064). All (N=31) preterm neonates were candidate for surfactant therapy but only 15 neonates got surfactant therapy, remaining (N=16) did not get for their financial issue. As mechanical ventilation with surfactant therapy reduces the neonatal mortality; hence, facilities for neonatal ventilation and cost effective surfactant therapy should be included in the regional and central hospitals providing intensive care for neonates.