Cyanosis physical examination

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Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1]; Associate Editor(s)-in-Chief: Chandrakala Yannam, MD [2]

Overview

Patients with cyanosis show bluish discolration of skin and mucous membranes. Common locations to look for cyanosis include tongue, buccal mucosa, lips, hands and feet.

Physical Examination

Appearance of the Patient

Vital Signs

Skin

Hand with cyanosis - By James Heilman, MD - Own work, CC BY-SA 3.0, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=17978808

HEENT

  • Evidence of head trauma

Neck

Heart

S2 Murmur
TOF single systolic
Tricuspid atresia single with or with out systolic
Ebstein's anomaly split systolic
TGA single none
Truncus arteriosus single systolic murmur/ with or with out diastolic murmur
Pulmonary stenosis single systolic
Pulmonary atresia single systolic
TAPVC split systolic
HLHS single with or with out systolic
Tricuspid atresia single with or with out systolic
  • Measure blood pressure in both upper and lower extremities

Lungs

Extremities

References

  1. Berg A, Greve G, Hirth A, Rosland GA, Norgård G (April 2005). "[Evaluation of cardiac murmurs in children]". Tidsskr. Nor. Laegeforen. (in Norwegian). 125 (8): 1000–3. PMID 15852070.
  2. 2.0 2.1 Sasidharan P (August 2004). "An approach to diagnosis and management of cyanosis and tachypnea in term infants". Pediatr. Clin. North Am. 51 (4): 999–1021, ix. doi:10.1016/j.pcl.2004.03.010. PMID 15275985.
  3. Ammash N, Warnes CA (September 1996). "Cerebrovascular events in adult patients with cyanotic congenital heart disease". J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 28 (3): 768–72. PMID 8772770.
  4. Maitre B, Similowski T, Derenne JP (September 1995). "Physical examination of the adult patient with respiratory diseases: inspection and palpation". Eur. Respir. J. 8 (9): 1584–93. PMID 8575588.
  5. Kosacka M, Brzecka A, Jankowska R, Lewczuk J, Mroczek E, Weryńska B (2009). "[Combined pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema - case report and literature review]". Pneumonol Alergol Pol (in Polish). 77 (2): 205–10. PMID 19462358.
  6. Srinivas SK, Manjunath CN (September 2013). "Differential clubbing and cyanosis: classic signs of patent ductus arteriosus with Eisenmenger syndrome". Mayo Clin. Proc. 88 (9): e105–6. doi:10.1016/j.mayocp.2013.02.016. PMID 24001503.
  7. Wald R, Crean A (June 2010). "Differential clubbing and cyanosis in a patient with pulmonary hypertension". CMAJ. 182 (9): E380. doi:10.1503/cmaj.091003. PMC 2882471. PMID 20421356.

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