Cyanosis history and symptoms

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Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1]; Associate Editor(s)-in-Chief: Chandrakala Yannam, MD [2]

Overview

The hallmark of cyanosis is blue discoration of skin and mucous membranes. Obtaining the history is most important aspect because of its association with wide variety of disorders (cardiac, pulmonary, vascular, neurologic and neuromuscular disorders). History taking also provide clues to specific cause, precipitating factors and associated comorbid conditions.

History and Symptoms

Cyanosis is a symptom of a disease process.Obtaining history is the most important aspect of making a diagnosis of diseases associated with cyanosis. It provides insight into the cause, precipitating factors, and associated comorbidities. A complete history will help determine the correct diagnosis, therapy, and the prognosis. Specific histories including symptom onset, pre-existing lung diseases, congenital heart diseases, the presence of CNS lesions, associated symptoms, and drug usage have to be obtained.

History

Common Symptoms

For the detailed history and symptoms of diseases causing cyanosis click the links below

References

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  2. Grifka RG (April 1999). "Cyanotic congenital heart disease with increased pulmonary blood flow". Pediatr. Clin. North Am. 46 (2): 405–25. PMID 10218083.
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  11. Esbenshade AJ, Ho RH, Shintani A, Zhao Z, Smith LA, Friedman DL (August 2011). "Dapsone-induced methemoglobinemia: a dose-related occurrence?". Cancer. 117 (15): 3485–92. doi:10.1002/cncr.25904. PMC 3138875. PMID 21246536.
  12. Gopalachar AS, Bowie VL, Bharadwaj P (June 2005). "Phenazopyridine-induced sulfhemoglobinemia". Ann Pharmacother. 39 (6): 1128–30. doi:10.1345/aph.1E557. PMID 15886294.
  13. Nagpal BM, Sharma R (April 2004). "Cold Injuries : The Chill Within". Med J Armed Forces India. 60 (2): 165–71. doi:10.1016/S0377-1237(04)80111-4. PMC 4923033. PMID 27407612.
  14. Engelhart M, Seibold JR (June 1990). "Cyanosis and Raynaud's phenomenon: the relation to underlying disease and venous abnormalities". Angiology. 41 (6): 432–8. doi:10.1177/000331979004100603. PMID 2375536.
  15. Jensen JD, Vincent AL. PMID 28613569. Missing or empty |title= (help)
  16. Kothari SS (October 1992). "Mechanism of cyanotic spells in tetralogy of Fallot--the missing link?". Int. J. Cardiol. 37 (1): 1–5. PMID 1428277.
  17. Huh J, Kang IS, Lee HJ, Park SW (July 2010). "Clinical experience of chest pain in adults with congenital heart disease in a single tertiary center". Pediatr Cardiol. 31 (5): 620–5. doi:10.1007/s00246-010-9656-2. PMID 20143055.

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