Mucormycosis classification

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Mucormycosis Microchapters

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Patient Information

Overview

Historical Perspective

Classification

Pathophysiology

Causes

Differentiating Mucormycosis from other Diseases

Epidemiology and Demographics

Risk Factors

Screening

Natural History, Complications and Prognosis

Diagnosis

Diagnostic Criteria

History and Symptoms

Physical Examination

Laboratory Findings

X Ray

CT

MRI

Other Imaging Findings

Other Diagnostic Studies

Treatment

Medical Therapy

Surgery

Primary Prevention

Secondary Prevention

Cost-Effectiveness of Therapy

Future or Investigational Therapies

Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1]; Associate Editor(s)-in-Chief: Syed Hassan A. Kazmi BSc, MD [2]

Overview

Mucormycosis can be classified according to the organ system involved including brain, lungs, skin, GIT, bones, liver, spleen. Disseminated infection affects multiple organ systems.

Classification

Mucormycosis may be classified based on the organ system involvement as follows:

Type High risk group Transmission Signs and Symptoms Complications
Rhinocerebral mucormycosis
Pulmonary mucormycosis
  • Acquired by:
    • Inhalation
    • Hematogenous spread
    • Lymphatic spread
Cutaneous mucormycosis
  • Skin redness
  • Numbness
  • Warmth
  • Skin ulceration and necrosis
Gastrointestinal mucormycosis
  • Rare occurrence
  • Acquired by:
Disseminated mucormycosis
  • Acquired by:
    • Hematogenous spread is usually the most common route of dissemination and pulmonary mucormycosis is usually the culprit

References

  1. "Rhinocerebral mucormycosis: Predisposing factors - Mcnulty - 1982 - The Laryngoscope - Wiley Online Library".
  2. "Epidemiology and Outcome of Mould Infections in Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplant Recipients | Clinical Infectious Diseases | Oxford Academic".
  3. Margo CE, Linden C, Strickland-Marmol LB, Denietolis AL, McCaffrey JC, Kirk N (2007). "Rhinocerebral mucormycosis with perineural spread". Ophthal Plast Reconstr Surg. 23 (4): 326–7. doi:10.1097/IOP.0b013e318070855b. PMID 17667114.
  4. Hosseini SM, Borghei P (2005). "Rhinocerebral mucormycosis: pathways of spread". Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol. 262 (11): 932–8. doi:10.1007/s00405-005-0919-0. PMID 15891927.
  5. Khor BS, Lee MH, Leu HS, Liu JW (2003). "Rhinocerebral mucormycosis in Taiwan". J Microbiol Immunol Infect. 36 (4): 266–9. PMID 14723256.
  6. "Rhinocerebral Mucormycosis: Evolution of the Disease and Treatment Options - Peterson - 1997 - The Laryngoscope - Wiley Online Library".
  7. Tedder M, Spratt JA, Anstadt MP, Hegde SS, Tedder SD, Lowe JE (1994). "Pulmonary mucormycosis: results of medical and surgical therapy". Ann. Thorac. Surg. 57 (4): 1044–50. PMID 8166512.
  8. "Improved Outcome of Zygomycosis in Patients with Hematological Diseases?: Leukemia & Lymphoma: Vol 45, No 7".
  9. "Cutaneous Rhizopus Infection | JAMA | The JAMA Network".
  10. "Gangrenous Cutaneous Mucormycosis in a Child with a Solid Organ Transplant: A Case Report and Review of the Literature - Boyd - 2003 - Pediatric Dermatology - Wiley Online Library".
  11. "www.nature.com" (PDF).
  12. "GASTRIC PERFORATION DUE TO MUCORMYCOSIS AFTER HEART-LUNG AND... : Transplantation".
  13. "Zygomycosis in neutropenic patients with past Aspergillus infection: a role for posaconazole? - Ide - 2004 - Clinical Microbiology and Infection - Wiley Online Library".
  14. "Breakthrough Fungal Infections in Stem Cell Transplant Recipients Receiving Voriconazole | Clinical Infectious Diseases | Oxford Academic".
  15. STRAATSMA BR, ZIMMERMAN LE, GASS JD (1962). "Phycomycosis. A clinicopathologic study of fifty-one cases". Lab. Invest. 11: 963–85. PMID 13984484.

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