Mucormycosis epidemiology and demographics

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Overview

Historical Perspective

Classification

Pathophysiology

Causes

Differentiating Mucormycosis from other Diseases

Epidemiology and Demographics

Risk Factors

Screening

Natural History, Complications and Prognosis

Diagnosis

Diagnostic Criteria

History and Symptoms

Physical Examination

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Future or Investigational Therapies

Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1]; Associate Editor(s)-in-Chief: Syed Hassan A. Kazmi BSc, MD [2]

Overview

Mucormycosis has limited data which outlines the epidemiology and demographics of the disease. It is known to have a high case fatality rate.

Epidemiology and Demographics[1]

  • Mucormycosis has limited national data available in the United States .[2]
  • The data available is population-based, varies according to the geographic region and is reported over a time period.
  • The prevalence is 36000 per 100,000 patients for diabetics.
  • The prevalence of mucormycosis for individuals for no underlying condition is 19000 per 100,000 individuals.
  • The prevalence of mucormycosis for patients with malignancy is 17000 per 100,000 patients.
  • The prevalence rate of mucormycosis infection was generally 4200 per 100,000 patients of hematologic malignancies in a study conducted in Iran.[3]

Incidence

  • A population-based surveillance study in San Francisco, California, from 1992 to 1993 revealed that the annual incidence of mucormycosis was 1.7 cases per 100,000 individuals (roughly 500 cases per year).[4]
  • A more recent study in a more general population in Spain found a lower incidence 0.43 cases per 100,000 individuals.[5]

Age

  • Extremes of age predispose an individual to mucormycosis infection.

Race

  • There is no racial predilection for mucormycosis.

Gender[1]

  • There is no gender predilection for mucormycosis.
  • Mucormycosis is frequently a life-threatening infection. A review of published mucormycosis cases found an overall all-cause mortality rate of 54000 per 100,000 indiviudals.

Case-fatality rate

Seasonal Variation

  • Data suggests that there is a seasonal variation among patients acquiring mucormycosis infection with a peak during the Autumn season.[6][7]

Reference

  1. 1.0 1.1 Roden MM, Zaoutis TE, Buchanan WL, Knudsen TA, Sarkisova TA, Schaufele RL, Sein M, Sein T, Chiou CC, Chu JH, Kontoyiannis DP, Walsh TJ (2005). "Epidemiology and outcome of zygomycosis: a review of 929 reported cases". Clin. Infect. Dis. 41 (5): 634–53. doi:10.1086/432579. PMID 16080086.
  2. "Mucormycosis Statistics | Mucormycosis | Fungal Diseases | CDC".
  3. Noorifard M, Sekhavati E, Jalaei Khoo H, Hazraty I, Tabrizi R (2015). "Epidemiology and clinical manifestation of fungal infection related to Mucormycosis in hematologic malignancies". J Med Life. 8 (Spec Iss 2): 32–37. PMC 5327702. PMID 28255394.
  4. Rees JR, Pinner RW, Hajjeh RA, Brandt ME, Reingold AL (1998). "The epidemiological features of invasive mycotic infections in the San Francisco Bay area, 1992-1993: results of population-based laboratory active surveillance". Clin. Infect. Dis. 27 (5): 1138–47. PMID 9827260.
  5. Torres-Narbona M, Guinea J, Martínez-Alarcón J, Muñoz P, Gadea I, Bouza E (2007). "Impact of zygomycosis on microbiology workload: a survey study in Spain". J. Clin. Microbiol. 45 (6): 2051–3. doi:10.1128/JCM.02473-06. PMC 1933097. PMID 17392438.
  6. Talmi YP, Goldschmied-Reouven A, Bakon M, Barshack I, Wolf M, Horowitz Z, Berkowicz M, Keller N, Kronenberg J (2002). "Rhino-orbital and rhino-orbito-cerebral mucormycosis". Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 127 (1): 22–31. doi:10.1067/mhn.2002.126587. PMID 12161726.
  7. Funada H, Matsuda T (1996). "Pulmonary mucormycosis in a hematology ward". Intern. Med. 35 (7): 540–4. PMID 8842759.

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