Gynecomastia physical examination

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Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1]; Associate Editor(s)-in-Chief: Husnain Shaukat, M.D [2]

Overview

Common physical examination findings of gynecomastia include breast enlargement with or without tenderness. Patients with gynecomastia are otherwise asymptomatic

Physical Examination

Appearance of the Patient

Chest

The following findings in patients physical exam are less commonly occuring:

  • Glandular tissue is centrally located and usually bilateral.
  • Size of a nipple-areolar complex may be increased in some patients.
  • Gynecomastia can be differentiated from pseudo gynecomastia by placing the thumb and index finger on opposite sides of the breast and brought towards the nipple-areolar complex. Gynecomastia is diagnosed as firm, mobile mass located beneath the areola.
  • Psedudogynecomastia doesn't have any discrete mass. The thumb and index finger will not counter any resistance until they reach the nipple.[2]

References

  1. 1.0 1.1 De Groot LJ, Chrousos G, Dungan K, Feingold KR, Grossman A, Hershman JM, Koch C, Korbonits M, McLachlan R, New M, Purnell J, Rebar R, Singer F, Vinik A, Swerdloff RS, Ng J. PMID 25905330. Vancouver style error: initials (help); Missing or empty |title= (help)
  2. Braunstein GD (2007). "Clinical practice. Gynecomastia". N Engl J Med. 357 (12): 1229–37. doi:10.1056/NEJMcp070677. PMID 17881754.



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