Gynecomastia risk factors

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Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1]; Associate Editor(s)-in-Chief: Husnain Shaukat, M.D [2]; Omodamola Aje B.Sc, M.D. [3]

Overview

Common risk factors in the development of gynecomastia include the use of medicationscirrhosis, and hyperthyroidism. The less common risk factors include aromatase overexpression, androgen insensitivity syndrome and testosterone pathway defects.

Risk factors

Risk factors in the development of gynecomastia include:[1][2][3][4][5][6][7][8]

Common Risk Factors

Less Common Risk Factors

References

  1. Wiseman EH, Chang YH, Lombardino JG (1976). "Piroxicam, a novel anti-inflammatory agent". Arzneimittelforschung. 26 (7): 1300–3. PMID 12765.
  2. Rose LI, Underwood RH, Newmark SR, Kisch ES, Williams GH (1977). "Pathophysiology of spironolactone-induced gynecomastia". Ann Intern Med. 87 (4): 398–403. PMID 907238.
  3. Deepinder F, Braunstein GD (2012). "Drug-induced gynecomastia: an evidence-based review". Expert Opin Drug Saf. 11 (5): 779–95. doi:10.1517/14740338.2012.712109. PMID 22862307.
  4. Braunstein GD (1993). "Gynecomastia". N Engl J Med. 328 (7): 490–5. doi:10.1056/NEJM199302183280708. PMID 8421478.
  5. JACOBS EC (1948). "Gynecomastia following severe starvation". Ann Intern Med. 28 (4): 792–7. PMID 18911010.
  6. Tseng A, Horning SJ, Freiha FS, Resser KJ, Hannigan JF, Torti FM (1985). "Gynecomastia in testicular cancer patients. Prognostic and therapeutic implications". Cancer. 56 (10): 2534–8. PMID 4042075.
  7. Olivo J, Gordon GG, Rafii F, Southren AL (1975). "Estrogen metabolism in hyperthyroidism and in cirrhosis of the liver". Steroids. 26 (1): 47–56. PMID 1166483.
  8. Freeman RM, Lawton RL, Fearing MO (1968). "Gynecomastia: an endocrinologic complication of hemodialysis". Ann Intern Med. 69 (1): 67–72. PMID 5658367.

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